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Post-colonial Literature for Children – EDU32PLC Week 6 Lecture 10. Re-introductions: searching and defining. © La Trobe University, David Beagley, 2005. Searching. Relevant resources

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Post-colonial Literature for Children – EDU32PLC Week 6 Lecture 10

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Post colonial literature for children edu32plc week 6 lecture 10 l.jpg

Post-colonial Literature for Children – EDU32PLCWeek 6 Lecture 10

Re-introductions: searching and defining

© La Trobe University, David Beagley, 2005


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Searching

Relevant resources

  • Ultimately, YOU are the judge. Is the resource authoritative (the writer has an authority to speak) and valid (it deals with the issue at hand)?

  • Books - library catalogue – reference lists – course readings

  • Journal articles - refereed / unrefereed - LibXplore

  • Web sites - gateways and Google


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References

Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G. and Tiffin, H. (1989) Introduction. The Empire Writes Back, London: Routledge

Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G. and Tiffin, H. (2000) Post-Colonial Studies: the key concepts, London: Routledge

esp. entries on colonialism, Euro-centrism, imperialism, Orientalism

Hunt, P. and Sands, K. (2000) The view from the centre: British Empire and post-Empire children’s literature. in Voices of the Other: children’s literature and the postcolonial context. Ed. Roderick McGillis.London: Garland

Course readings - Topic Three: Representing other cultures in Post-colonial Australian Children’s Literature


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Revisit some terms, and meet some new ones

  • Colonialism / Imperialism

  • Imperial centre / Colonial centre

  • Orientalism

  • Ethno-centrism – Euro-centrism

  • Subaltern and Commonwealth literatures

  • Cultural markers

  • Multiculturalism - Assimilation - Apartheid


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Colonialism & Imperialism

  • Colonialism - the implanting of settlements of the colonising power on distant territory

  • Imperialism - the practice and attitudes of a dominant imperial centre ruling distant territory

  • The key difference is how the coloniser’s culture and society are transferred to the colony, and consequent attitudes of superiority.

  • Subjection or paternalism? Subordinate or child?


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Imperial centre / Colonial centre

  • Centre and its circle - the centre and the outside

  • Imperial centre - the dominance and implied superiority of the original society, from its “home”

  • Colonial centre - the dominance of the introduced society over the indigenous, in the colony

    Superiority is a binary definition - it requires an “Other” against which the superior is compared in order to be better than it.


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Orientalism & Ethno-centrism

  • Ethno-centrism - the defining of one culture as the normal, the natural, the universal, against which all others are defined and measured

  • Orientalism - the defining of the rest of the world as “not-European” which entitles Europe to describe it, interpret it, and dominate it.

  • Cf. 1st world/3rd world, Developed/Emerging, East/West, North/South, Democratic/dictatorial, Free world/Iron curtain, Defenders of freedom/Axis of Evil, Jihad/Crusaders


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Subaltern and Commonwealth literatures

  • Subaltern - “under the other”. Branches of a literature that have sprung after the original has been established.

  • Commonwealth - specifically the nations and cultures that have, at some time, been part of the British Empire/Commonwealth

  • Ongoing links - language, cultural elements, history

  • Differences - distinct voices, interpretation, alternatives


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Cultural markers

How is one culture distinguished from another?

  • Language

  • Religious beliefs - morality and expressions of right and wrong

  • Social groups - family, kinship, castes/classes. Responsibilities to each other

  • History - how it has been shaped, and treated in relation to other cultures

  • Outward expressions of identity


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Multiculturalism

  • Relating to several cultural groups

  • Co-existing

  • Inclusive - allows the equivalence of those several

  • Breaks the binary pattern of superior/inferior - invader/indigenous - imperial/provincial

  • Difficulties: how are contradictions resolved?


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Assimilation

  • The culture of one group is seen as the norm in a society

  • Other groups are allowed freedom for personal expression of their culture …but …

  • Are expected to adapt their cultural markers to the pattern allowed by that norm, if there is a contradiction


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Apartheid

  • Separate development of cultures in a society - Apart + hood

  • Developed and formalised in South Africa 1948-91

  • Expressed by separation - transport and social facilities, schooling, ownership and economics

  • In theory, to allow cultural integrity to be maintained and developed

  • In practice, the suppression of “other” groups to the advantage of a dominant


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