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POSC 2200 – New Challenges. Russell Alan Williams Department of Political Science. Unit Eight: New Challenges in International Politics. Required Reading: Mingst, Chapter 10. Held et al., Globalization , Mingst and Snyder, pp. 462-471. Outline: Introduction New Policy Challenges

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POSC 2200 – New Challenges

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Posc 2200 new challenges

POSC 2200 – New Challenges

Russell Alan Williams

Department of Political Science


Unit eight new challenges in international politics

Unit Eight: New Challenges in International Politics

Required Reading:

  • Mingst, Chapter 10.

  • Held et al., Globalization, Mingst and Snyder, pp. 462-471.

    Outline:

  • Introduction

  • New Policy Challenges

  • Globalization


1 introduction

1) Introduction:

  • Societies more interconnected then in past

    • “Post-Westphalian” state system

  • Array of new topics in world politics

    • Challenge state centric/realist approaches to IR

    • Challenge existing political architecture

      • Require unprecedented international cooperation and institutions


Posc 2200 new challenges

  • Many challenges require coordination to overcome “collective action problems”

    • E.g. Self interested behavior by states fearful of cheating will make problems worse

      • Think of nuclear proliferation!

      • Similar dynamics in “new” policy areas . . . .


2 new policy challenges

2) New Policy Challenges:

i) Disease

  • Does not respect national boundaries

  • Can be more dangerous then war

  • Historically?

    • Bubonic Plague

    • Smallpox

    • Influenza 1917 (May have killed more then WWI)

  • Modern?

    • AIDS

    • SARS

    • Avian “Bird” Flu

    • Ebola


  • Posc 2200 new challenges

    High need for cooperation – overcome fear that other states won’t “do the job”

    Responses?

    1) Institutional - UN “World Health Organization” (WHO)

    • Malaria, Smallpox and Polio

    • However, disease issues highly technical – often include multiple policy areas

      2) “Epistemic communities”: Transnational community of experts and technical specialists who share beliefs and common approaches to problem solving

    • Impact how states perceive, or “see” problems

    • Promote common policy responses – E.g. Avian Flu


    Posc 2200 new challenges

    ii) The Environment:

    Historically, two views:

    “Malthusian Dilemma”: Population growth rates increase faster then food production

    • Threatened sustainability of modern society – modernity would overtax natural environment

      “Demographic Transition”: Higher standards of living ultimately lead to falling birth rates

    • Less population growth then expected

      • E.g. Europe


    Posc 2200 new challenges

    Modern IR concern about the environment?

    1) Finite natural resources

    • Insufficient natural resources to sustain modern civilization

      • E.g. Oil, clean water etc. – New source of conflict?

        2) “Externalities”: Unintended economic side effects that can have negative (or positive) impacts on individuals unrelated to the activity

      • E.g. Pollution and “greenhouse” effect

    • Short term gain for some = long term negative impact for all (collective action problem)

    • International environmental externalities require institutions . . .

      • E.g. Kyoto Protocol


    3 globalization

    3) Globalization?

    • Good spot to end an introduction to “international relations” . . .

    • Either:

      • Nature of world is fundamentally changing

        =We must abandon our old ways of thinking

      • IR is timeless . . .

        =We should be suspicious of ambitious international projects – keep our eye on national interests and national security


    Posc 2200 new challenges

    Example: Held et al. “Globalization”

    • “Globalization” ties together all the new policy challenges

      • Argue: May have been developing for sometime, but we are in a definitively different era

    • Evidence?

      • Societies more diverse then ever, and states losing control over culture

      • Multilevel governance eroding geographically defined sovereignty

      • Security is “multilateral”

        • E.g. Arms production

      • Economies more integrated then ever and pressure on for policy “harmonization”

      • Environment . . .


    Posc 2200 new challenges

    Example: Held et al. “Globalization”

    • Implications????

      • Need to do a fundamental rethink of modern political structures

        • Who are “we”?

        • How do “we” want to exert control over our world?

      • Are notions of sovereignty, national security and interstate competition adequate???


    Final exam

    Final Exam:

    Time:

    Location:

    Format:Three Sections

    • Multiple Choice

    • Short Answer

    • Essay

      Similar to mid term – sections will be “weighted”


    Posc 2200 new challenges

    Essays:


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