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SCADA and Metering UPDEA - Workshop. Topics. What we measure Substation configurations – and our evolution Four level control vision SCADA Data Types Graphical data display Telecontrol Standard Metering Common Information Model. What does SCADA stand for?.

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Scada and metering updea workshop

SCADA and Metering UPDEA - Workshop


Topics

Topics

  • What we measure

  • Substation configurations – and our evolution

  • Four level control vision

  • SCADA Data Types

  • Graphical data display

  • Telecontrol Standard

  • Metering

  • Common Information Model

What does SCADA stand for?

SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


What do we measure

What do we Measure?

3

1

4

2

2

1 = Voltage Transformers

2 = Breaker

3 = Line Traps

4 = Current Transformers

Primary and secondary plant status and indications


Primary and secondary data

Primary and Secondary data

  • HV Yard

  • Trfr Status

  • Trfr Output

  • Bkr State

  • Line Flows

  • Isolator state

  • Health data

  • Protection data

  • Local Information states

What is the key to efficient SCADA systems?

  • LV Yard

  • Trfr Status

  • Trfr Output

  • Customer load

  • Bkr State

  • Isolator state

  • Health data

  • Protection data

  • Local Information states

  • Power Station

  • Unit Status

  • Unit Output

  • AGC state

  • Gen Breaker


Key to reliable scada functionality

Key to reliable SCADA functionality

A resilient telecoms backbone underpins the SCADA and Metering process.

To be effective, substation data must be collected real time and on time!

Overloaded comms links cause trouble in a disturbance.

Independent consumption metering is ideal.

What are the four types of SCADA data?


Scada provides

SCADA provides:

260

160

4

1 & 3 Pole

Generator Bay

VENUS

250

140

Feeder Bay

  • Status Data

    • Two-State Device Control such as circuit breakers, isolators, etc.

    • Single-State such as alarms

    • Six state devices, such as auto reclose relays

    • BCD Tap position

  • Analogue Data

    • Megawatts, Mvars, kV, water level, flow rate

  • Accumulator Data

    • Power station sent out Megawatts and Mvars

  • Supervisory control

    • Device Control such as, breaker control, Auto manual.

    • Setpoint Device Control, Auto Reclose Relay setting

    • Pulse control such as AGC up or down, tap change control

    • Static Var Compensator voltage or Mvar set point


Substation configuration and evolution

Substation Configuration and Evolution


Scada and metering updea workshop

Substation ID

Substation ID

Distribution

SMART

TEMSE Port

IEC 60870-5-101

STABNAC

Gen 1

Gen 1

Sub-Station 04

Sub-Station 04

CPU

Memory

0

0

500

500

0

0

500

500

IRIG-B

GPS Receiver

Transformer

Protection

Panel

400

400

0

0

1

1

2

2

500

500

0

0

1600

1600

0

0

12

12

Estel Remote Terminal Unit

12

12

HMI

200

200

Station

RTU

CPU

200

200

100

100

100

100

Memory

100

100

120

120

220

220

220

220

Munic 2

Munic 2

Munic 1

Munic 1

Sub-Station 02

Sub-Station 02

Todays Configuration

Class 1 data collected within 5 milliseconds of state change.

Alarm any unauthorized change in the network within 4 seconds.

Time stamped data accurate to 1/1000 second


Remote terminal units

Remote Terminal Units

ERTU

Bay Processor


Scada and metering updea workshop

Substation ID

National Control TEMSE

IEC 60870-5-101

Distribution

ABB

DMP3

STABNAC

IEC 60870-5-101

Gen 1

Sub-Station 04

CPU

Memory

0

500

0

500

IRIG-B

D25 Bay Controller

Transformer

Protection

Panel

400

0

1

2

500

D400

0

1600

0

12

D25 Bay Controller

Estel Remote Terminal Unit

12

200

IEC 61850 LAN

Station

RTU

]

]

]

]

]

]

CPU

]

200

100

100

Memory

100

120

220

220

Munic 2

Munic 1

D20 Station RTU

Sub-Station 02

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]]]]]]

]

]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

Tomorrow’s Configuration

GPS Receiver

HMI


Substation control system in 10 years

Substation Control System in 10 Years

Local HMI (via Browser)

Remote Engineering

via GPRS link to Substation LAN

Technical Services

Distribution

ABB

DMP3

National Control TEMSE

IEC 60870-5-101

Local Engineering

via Substation LAN

PPP

GPS Receiver

Station Level

+ -

(S)NTP Time Synchronization

IEC 61850 Station LAN

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

Bay Level

Bay Level

AC/DC Supply

]

Comms

]

]

]

]

]

]

Process Level

]

]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]]]]]]

]

]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]

]


Breaker and a half

Breaker and a half

Perseus

765 kV

Feeder 6

Mercury 1

234

132

Transformer 21

Reactor 6

150

765KV busbar 1

Transformer 21

765KV

Interconnector

busbar

765KV Mercury 1

Interconnector

busbar

765KV Reactor

Transfer busbar

765KV Beta 1

Interconnector

busbar

765KV Gamma 1

Interconnector

busbar

765KV busbar 2

150

150

Busbar

Reactor 1

Reactor 3

Feeder 3

Gamma 1

234

132

300

200

300

200

Feeder 2

Hydra 1

Feeder 1

Beta 1


Scada and metering updea workshop

Four Level Vision


Four level vision

Four Level Vision

National

Standby

Control Centre

Control Centre

Distribution

Control Centre #1

Substation

Substation

Control #n

Control #1

Reticulation

Reticulation

Control #1

Control #n

TEMSE

TEMSE

IEC 60870-5-101

Level 1

Future Inter Control Centre Protocol

SMART

SMART

Distribution

Level 2

Control Centre #n

DMP3 Protocol

ERTU

ERTU

Level 3

PMRTU

Estel Variant Protocol

PMRTU

Level 4


Levels 1 4

Levels 1- 4

  • Level 1 : National and Standby control centres (220kV to 765kV).

  • Level 2 : Distribution control centres (33kV to 132kV).

    • SMART (Standard Master for Regional Telecontrol).

  • Level 3 : Substation control systems

    • Based on the Enhanced Remote Terminal Unit (ERTU) being replaced GE Harris D400 Gateway.

  • Level 4 : Reticulation control. (33kV and below).

    • Final link in the chain of supply to the end customer.

    • Includes pole mounted SCADA (PMU) systems protection purposes and permit sectionalising of lines when attempting to isolate faults.


Pole mounted units

Pole Mounted Units

  • A pole mounted RTU (PMRTU) is based on conventional SCADA principles and has 3 main elements:

    • stand alone central controller or master station

    • a number of remote terminal units in the field

    • a UHF radio based communications network.

  • The RTU acts as the interface to the pole mounted devices with a mechanical actuator where no built-in telecontrol interface exists.

  • Uses a common protocol, known as the Estel Variant protocol.

  • The current central controller can act as a stand alone device.


Scada data types

SCADA Data Types


Scada data types1

SCADA Data Types

Bay 1

Status Data

  • Two-State or double bit Device such as circuit breakers, isolators, etc.

  • Single-State such as alarms and indications

  • Six state devices, such as auto reclose relays.

  • BCD Tap position indication

1

Sect 1

A

B

1/275

CPLR 1

2

5

2/275

500280

Trfr 1

M

1280

3

12

Aut

1/400

CPLR 2

2/400

Atlas 2

4

1 & 3 Pole

500280


Double bit points rtu side

Double Bit Points – RTU side

Double Bit points have a different meaning at the RTU and at the front ends

You need two bits for each state for two state devices at the ERTU, e.g. a breaker

S X

Open = 0 1

Close = 1 0

In transit = 0 0

Don’t Believe= 1 1

(S = Status, X = extended)

At the ERTU two bits are used to indicate the combined state of the device.

Double bit indication

RTUs x n

CPU

Memory

12 v

1200/9600 b/s

X.21

Rapid re-routing communications cloud

X.21

Front Ends

Front Ends

TCP/IP

Double bit State

Back Ends

How many bits are used to model a 2 state device in the SCADA back end?

HMI

HMI

HMI

HMI

HMI


Double bit points db side

Front end the bit states:

S X

Open = 0 0

Close = 1 0

In transit = 0 1

Don’t Believe = 1 1

Extended bit X = Health

Status bit S = Device

Double Bit Points – DB side

  • You need two bits for each state for two state devices at the ERTU

  • S X

    • Open = 0 1

    • Close = 1 0

    • In transit = 0 0

    • Don’t Believe= 1 1

    • Extended bit X = Health

    • Status bit S = Device

Why is it necessary to do a conversion at the Front End from 2 bits to 1 bit for the state of the device?

We only want one structure in the data base for single bit and double bit values.


Six bit status devices

Six Bit status devices

  • We have Six State ARC relays that have 6 states.

  • Four of the states are controllable

  • The states are

  • Manual

  • Closing off

  • 1 Pole

  • 3 Pole

  • 1 + 3 Pole

  • Unknown

Controllable

  • In what form is the data sent back to the control room?

  • How should it be represented at the RTU?

  • How should it be represented in the data base?


Six bit status devices1

Six Bit status devices

0 0 0 = Closing Off

0 0 1 = 1 Pole

0 1 0 = 3 Pole

0 1 1 = 1 + 3 Pole

1 0 0 = Manual

1 0 1 = DBI

1 1 0 = DBI

1 1 1 = DBI

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Hexadecimal

Hexadecimal

Where does the word Hexadecimal come from?

  • Hex = 6

  • Decimal = 10

  • Hexadecimal = Number 16

  • Byte = 8 bits

  • Nibble = 4 bits

  • Bit = 1 binary digit

What is an 8 bit number is called?

Octal = 8 bits


Hexadecimal1

000 000

110 001

220 010

330 011

440 100

550 101

660 110

770 111

881 000

991 001

10A1 010

11B1 011

12C1 100

13D1 101

14E1 110

15F1 111

Hexadecimal

N10 N16 23 22 21 20

What is the value of an 8 bit number when all the bits are 1?

8 Bits = 1111 1111 = FF = 27 = 255

Or 1 0000 0000 - 1 = (28 -1) = 256 - 1


Binary coded decimal

The BCD Number System is used to measure tap positions where the decimal numbers 1 – 10 have specific bit values in the Hex format.

Binary Coded Decimal

What number format is used to measure are tap positions?


Binary coded decimal1

Each decimal digit is assigned to 4 bits.

It is NOT a number base in the sense that binary, octal and hexadecimal are

Leading 0s must be included as they are vital to the conversion.

Binary Coded Decimal

How are numbers represented in BCD format?

N10N16 23 222120

00 0 0 0 0

11 0 0 0 1

22 0 0 1 0

33 0 0 1 1

44 0 1 0 0

55 0 1 0 1

66 0 1 1 0

77 0 1 1 1

88 1 0 0 0

99 1 0 0 1

What would the BCD encoding for the number 127 be:

H T U

0001 0010 0111

1 0 0= 100

2 0= 20

7= 7


Binary coded decimal2

Binary Coded Decimal

  • Examining Hex values which Hex numbers are not used in BCD coding?

  • What are the equivalent Hex values of these numbers.

  • The binary patterns 1010 through 1111 do not represent valid BCD numbers, and cannot be used.

  • A, B,C,D,E


Binary coded decimal3

Binary Coded Decimal

  • Where do use BCD formats and why?

  • What would be the range of the numbers needed

  • What is the numerical value of the bits in position 5 and 4 (25 2423 22 21 20)

  • What is the BCD value of 31

  • Transformer Tap Positions

  • Normally between 1 and 32

  • 10 and 20

  • 11 0001


Scada data types analog

Substation Analog values

Megawatt

Mvar

Amps

Voltage

Frequency

Transformer oil temperature (actual values)

Transformer Tap position

Conductor Temperature (New)

Dam Water Level

Derived analog value alarms

Area Loads

Tap changer rate of change

SCADA Data Types - Analog

260

160

4

VENUS

Generator Bay

250

140

Feeder Bay


Digital to analog conversion

Digital to Analog Conversion

+ 2000 MW

CT

VT

- 4000 Counts

Analog

+ 4000 Counts

+ 1000 Counts

Analog

MW

Mvar

- 2000 MW

RTU

Host I/O

Transducer

Digital Counts

If the counts from the ERTU is 1000 what is the engineering value?

y = mx + c where m = 2000 : c = 0

4000

Y = 2000 x 1000 + 0

4000

= 500 MWs


Graphical data display

Graphical data display


Alarm data categories

Alarm Data Categories

All data points are assigned to one four alarm category types i.e.

Health

Non Unit

Protection

Unit

Protection

Information

Following an examination of substation data the following data categories were identified

  • Health ( Only real Alarms)

  • Unit Protection

  • Non – Unit Protection

  • Information

  • Device state

  • Communications

  • Analog

  • Tap position

  • Station

  • Secondary AC/DC


Abnormal state propagation

Abnormal State Propagation

Region State

Region

Substation counts

n Health

n Main Prot.

etc.

n Backup Prot.

n Substations

etc.

n Information

etc.

Device

State

Element

counts

Station State

Device

Substation

Bay counts

n Health

n Health

n Main Prot.

n Main Prot.

etc.

n Backup Prot.

n Backup Prot.

n Bays

etc.

n Information

n Information

etc.

Four Icon

Categories

Bay State

Bays

Device counts

n Health

n Main Prot.

Element data by category

n Devices

n Backup Prot.

etc.

n Information

etc.

Notify the control staff of existence abnormal conditions on the station one line diagrams

Allow them to examine the abnormal data when they want to.

Upwardly summate the category counts and display the counts as icons at each level.


Scada and metering updea workshop

One line display showing device, bay and station icons

The station bay has active health alarms

Isolators has health and information icons

Transformer had a fault and tripped.

Note the device information icon next to the Transformer as well as the parent Transformer Bay and at next to the station name.


Bay state what is it

Bay State – What is it?

MOLL

IED

2

1

3

Gen 1

.AND.

Venus

Jupiter

Atlas

IED

BKR

.AND.

Bay State

0

400

MOL1

IED

0

320

.OR.

IED

MOL2

(MOLL & BKR) & (MOL1 | MOL2) &

(kV | MW | Mvar)

400

2

Bay

0

1

320

0

1600

0

12

12

100

200

5

120

120

7

4

6

Munic 1

Munic 2

Majuba

  • Bay States

  • Disconnected: All links open (Don’t care about BKR )

  • Isolated: Bus links closed – Line Link Open

  • Connected : Links closed – BKR Open

  • Dead: Link & BKR Closed kV <= 0

  • Energised : Link & BKR Closed kV > 0

  • On load : Link & BKR Closed MW > 0

  • Bypass : Bypass Link closed , Line link open

  • Mvar only: Links & BKR Closed MW = 0 and Mvar > 0

  • Unknown : Analogs <> Status

  • Increasing (s): Value is approaching limit (20 min)

  • Increasing (f): Value is approaching limit (10 min)

  • Will Trip in 5: Bay will trip bay in 5 minutes

Do we tell the control staff about the breaker state when the bay is disconnected?


Scada and metering updea workshop

Bay State Benefits


Tele control standard

Tele-control Standard


Transformer standard 1

Isolator_101_State10_StateCategoryTypeBinAudCtl

Isolator State ClosedOpenInfoDoubleLog_onlyTrue

PoleDisagreeNormalHealthSingleProtect

Isolator_201_State10_StateCategoryTypeBinAudCtl

Isolator State ClosedOpenInfoDoubleLog_onlyTrue

PoleDisagreeNormalHealthSingleProtect

HV_BKR01_State10_StateCategoryTypeBinAudCtl

AC Supply FailedAlarmNormalInfoSingleDC_Sup

Breaker Failed to TripAlarmNormalMainSingleBreakerYes

Breaker State (ERTU)ClosedTrippedInfoDoubleBreakerYesTrue

Breaker UnhealthyAlarmNormalHealthSingleBreaker

Bus Zone TripAlarmNormalInfoSingleBus_ZoneYes

DC Supply FailedAlarmNormalHealthSinglePanel

Earth AppliedAlarmNormalHealthSinglePanel

External to Unit ProtectionOperatedNormalMainSingleProtect

PoleDisagreeNormalHealthSingleProtect

Protection AbnormalAlarmNormalHealthSingleProtect

Protection OperatedAlarmNormalMainSingleProtect

Protection UnhealthyAlarmNormalHealthSinglePanel

SF6 Gas CriticalAlarmNormalHealthSingleBreakerYes

SF6 Non-urgentAlarmNormalInfoSingleBreaker

SupervisoryIsolatedOffInfoSinglePanel

Transformer Standard (1)


Transformer standard 2

Current Trfr01_State10_StateCategoryTypeBinAudCtl

SF6 Gas Critical (CT)AlarmNormalHealthSingleCTYes

SF6 Non-Critical (CT)AlarmNormalHealthSingleCT

Transformer01_State10_StateCategoryTypeBinAudCtl

AmpsInfoAnalogPanelNoFalse

MegavarsInfoAnalogPanelNoFalse

MegawattsInfoAnalogPanelNoFalse

Tap positionInfoBCDTrfrNoTrue

BucholzAlarmNormalHealthDoubleTrfr

CoolingFailedNormalHealthSinglePanel

Differential ProtectionAlarmNormalBackupSinglePanel

Oil LevelLowNormalHealthSinglePanel

Over Current/Earth FaultAlarmNormalMainDoublePanel

Restricted Earth FaultAlarmNormalMainSinglePanel

Tap (a/m) StateAutoManualInfoSingleLog_onlyTrue

Tap out of StepAlarmNormalHealthSingleTrfr

TemperatureHighNormalHealthSinglePanel

Transformer Standard (2)


Metering

Metering


Metering scheme components

Metering Scheme Components

LOAD

SUPPLY

CT supply cabling

VT supply cabling

CT

VT

Junction box

Junction box

Meter equipment

Data

Validation

Billing

system

Miscellaneous meter equipment

Meter data

capturing

Meter

pulses

Ancillary meter equipment


Accuracy class

Accuracy Class

Transmission Loads


Metering data management system

Metering Data Management System

Distributors

International

REDs

Generators

  • Remote Acquisition of Metering Data

  • First Line Validation of Data

  • Limited Storage of Data

IPPs

Data Acquisition

  • Second Line Verification & Validation of Data

  • Data Warehousing

  • Data Management (Profiling,Totalisation & Mapping)

  • Reporting

  • Access Control

  • Audit Trails

Data Management

Data Dissemination

Customer Application

  • Transfer of Data to Customer

  • Stakeholder Systems

  • Web viewing of metering information


Common information model

Common Information Model


Common information model1

Why does it cost so much to buy an EMS?

Can you take different software packages from one EMS vendor and load them on to a different EMS platform?

How can the problem be overcome – two reasons?

Common Information Model

  • You can’t buy shrink wrapped software for SCADA systems

  • No because every vendor’s data is unique

  • By agreeing to a standard way of modelling the data interface

  • Defining a common software interface definition


Overall structure of an ems

Overall structure of an EMS

Comms

link

S1

S1

RTU

S 2

S 2

S 3

S 3

Scanner Process

Control Process

Alarm Process

Host I/O

S 4

S 4

S 5

S 5

S 6

S 6

S 7

S 7

S 8

S 8

Host SCADA

Data Base

New Process

A 1

A 1

Status Record

A 2

A 2

Status Record

A 3

A 3

Status Record

A 4

A 4

Status Record

A 5

A 5

Data base Browser

Process

Analog Record

A 6

A 6

Analog Record

Analog Record

Analog Record

?

Status Record

231

234

34

Status Record

One Line Display

Status Record

Status Record

Analog Record

Analog Record

Raw data in the RTU DB

Raw data

Engineering data


Common information model2

A standard developed by the electric power industry that aims to allow application software to exchange information about the configuration and status of an electrical network.

The CIM is currently maintained as a UML model and defines a common vocabulary and basic ontology for aspects of the electric power industry.

The central package within the CIM is the 'wires model', which describes the basic components used to transport electricity.

Common Information Model

S1

S 2

New Process

S 3

S 4

S 5

S 6

S 7

S 8

A 1

A 2

A 3

A 4

A 5

A 6

Host SCADA

Data Base

Status Record

Status Record

Status Record

Status Record

Analog Record

Analog Record

Analog Record

Analog Record

Status Record

Status Record

Status Record

Status Record

Analog Record

Integration Bus

Analog Record


Purpose

Purpose

  • Need a common way to represent the Data to be exchanged –

  • It is called the CIM or Common Information Model

  • The CIM is:

    • a data model defining all relationships

    • background map for information exchange

  • CIM is not:

    • a database (object or relational)

    • the end of the road


Common information model3

The central package within the CIM is the 'wires model', which describes the basic components used to transport electricity.

Common Information Model


Common information model4

Individual application components are interconnected via a component execution system and component adapters.

They provide the infrastructure services needed by the components to discover and communicate with each other and with the public data stores in the various EMS contexts.

Common Information Model

Alarm

Topology

Network

Load

Accounting/

Generation

Legacy System

Processor

Processor

Applications

Management

Settlement

Control

SCADA

Programs

Programs

Programs

CIM

Server

Programs

Programs

Programs

Network

Legacy Wrapper

Public Data

Public Data

Public Data

Public Data

Public Data

Public Data

Component Execution System and Component Adapters

(e.g., Integration Bus)

User

Distribution

PCs

Management

Public

ICCP

Public

Component

Data

Systems

Data

Network

Interface

Programs

Programs

ICCP


3 aspects to consider for a reliable scada service

3 Aspects to consider for a reliable SCADA service


Reliable scada service

Technical Aspects

Substation monitoring with battery backup

Reliable tele-communications infrastructure

SCADA master with ability to survive disturbances

Trained control staff that know how to deal with disturbances

Battery backup for control room and computer room

Hardware and software maintenance plan

Available and appropriate spares budget

Reliable SCADA service


Reliable scada service1

Reliable SCADA service

  • Human Resources

  • Trained and motivated

    • Substation Remote Terminal Unit (gateway) support staff

    • SCADA computer support staff (hardware, software and web)

    • Telecommunications support staff

    • Engineering support staff

  • Management support

  • User Group participation – documentation

  • Procurement system that works for the control room

  • Educate the buyers about your business


Educate the business in house

Educate the Business (in house)

  • Education

  • Your business is NOT Information Technology (IT) – that is some one else's business.

  • Your business is Process Control in a big way.

  • Most of the time your business division don’t even known you exist.


Questions

Questions


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