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Process Layout. Chapter 8. D. D. L. L. M. M. D. D. L. L. M. M. L. L. M. M. G. G. L. L. G. G. A. A. A. A. G. G. How Process Layout fits the Operations Management Philosophy . Operations As a Competitive Weapon Operations Strategy Project Management.

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Process layout l.jpg

Process Layout

Chapter 8

D

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How process layout fits the operations management philosophy l.jpg

How Process Layout fits the Operations Management Philosophy

Operations As a Competitive

Weapon

Operations Strategy

Project Management

Process Strategy

Process Analysis

Process Performance and Quality

Constraint Management

Process Layout

Lean Systems

Supply Chain Strategy

Location

Inventory Management

Forecasting

Sales and Operations Planning

Resource Planning

Scheduling


Layout planning l.jpg

Layout Planning

  • Layout planning is planning that involves decisions about the physical arrangement of economic activity centers needed by a facility’s various processes.

    • Layout plans translate the broader decisions about the competitive priorities, process strategy, quality, and capacity of its processes into actual physical arrangements.

  • Economic activity center: Anything that consumes space -- a person or a group of people, a customer reception area, a teller window, a machine, a workstation, a department, an aisle, or a storage room.


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Layout Planning Questions

Before a manager can make decisions regarding physical arrangement, four questions must be addressed.

  • What centers should the layout include?

  • How much space and capacity does each center need?

  • How should each center’s space be configured?

  • Where should each center be located?


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Strategic IssuesImpact and Implications

  • Layout choices can help communicate an organization’s product plans and competitive priorities.

  • Altering a layout can affect an organization and how well it meets its competitive priorities in the following ways:

    • Increasing customer satisfaction and sales at a retail store.

    • Facilitating the flow of materials and information.

    • Increasing the efficient utilization of labor and equipment.

    • Reducing hazards to workers.

    • Improving employee morale.

    • Improving communication.


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Types of Layouts

  • Flexible-flow (process) layout: A layout that organizes resources (employees) and equipment by function rather than by service or product.

  • Line-flow (product) layout: A layout in which workstations or departments are arranged in a linear path.

  • Hybrid layout: An arrangement in which some portions of the facility have a flexible-flow and others have a line-flow layout.

  • Fixed-position layout: An arrangement in which service or manufacturing site is fixed in place; employees along with their equipment, come to the site to do their work.


A flexible flow layout l.jpg

Grinding

Forging

Lathes

Painting

Welding

Drills

Milling

Office

Foundry

machines

A Flexible Flow Layout

A job shop has a flexible-flow layout.


Line flow layout l.jpg

Station 1

Station 2

Station 3

Station 4

Line Flow Layout

A production line has a line-flow layout.


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Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts

PRODUCT LAYOUT PROCESS LAYOUT

1. DescriptionSequential arrangementFunctional grouping

of machinesof machines

2. Type of ProcessContinuous, mass Intermittent, job shop

production, mainlybatch production,

assemblymainly fabrication

3. ProductStandardized Varied,

made to stockmade to order

4. DemandStableFluctuating

5. VolumeHighLow

6. EquipmentSpecial purposeGeneral purpose

7. WorkersLimited skillsVaried skills

© 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc

Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

Ch 7 - 9


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Comparison Of Product And Process Layouts

PRODUCT LAYOUTPROCESS LAYOUT

8. InventoryLow in-process,High in-process,

high finished goodslow finished goods

9. Storage spaceSmallLarge

10. MaterialFixed pathVariable path

handling(conveyor)(forklift)

11. AislesNarrowWide

12. SchedulingPart of balancingDynamic

13. Layout decisionLine balancingMachine location

14. GoalEqualize work atMinimize material

each stationhandling cost

15. AdvantageEfficiencyFlexibility

© 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc

Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

Ch 7 - 10


Performance criteria l.jpg

Performance Criteria

  • Customer satisfaction

  • Level of capital investment

  • Requirements for materials handling

  • Ease of stockpicking

  • Work environment and “atmosphere”

  • Ease of equipment maintenance

  • Employee and internal customer attitudes

  • Amount of flexibility needed

  • Customer convenience and levels of sales


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Creating Hybrid Layouts

  • Layout flexibility is the property of a facility to remain desirable after significant changes occur or to be easily and inexpensively adopted in response to changes.

  • AOne-worker, multiple-machines (OWMM) cell is a one-person cell in which a worker operates several different machines simultaneously to achieve a line flow.

  • A Cell is two or more dissimilar workstations located close together through which a limited number of parts or models are processed with line flows.


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Machine 2

Machine 3

Machine 1

Materials in

Finished goods out

Machine 4

Machine 5

One Worker, Multiple Machines


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Group Technology (GT)

  • Group Technology (GT) is an option for achieving line-flow layouts with low-volume processes; this technique creates cells not limited to just one worker and has a unique way of selecting work to be done by the cell.

  • The GT method groups parts or products with similar characteristics into families and sets aside groups of machines for their production.


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Lathing

Milling

Drilling

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L

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Grinding

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Assembly

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A

A

Receiving and shipping

A

A

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G

Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

Before Group Technology


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M

L

L

G

Assembly area

D

A

A

Cell 2

Cell 1

L

M

Receiving

G

G

Cell 3

M

L

D

Shipping

Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells

Applied Group Technology


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Classification and Coding System

Source: Organization for Industrial Research Inc.


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4

6

7

9

5

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2

10

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1

3

11

Original Process Layout

Assembly

A

B

C

Raw materials

© 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc

Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

Ch 7 - 34


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Cellular Layout Solution

© 2000 by Prentice-Hall Inc

Russell/Taylor Oper Mgt 3/e

Ch 7 - 37


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Storage area

3556427

1554427

Dock

Aisle

Storage area

Warehouse LayoutsOut-and-back Pattern

  • The most basic warehouse layout is the out-and-back pattern. The numbers indicate storage areas for same or similar items.


Warehouse layouts zone system l.jpg

Zones

Zones

Control station

Click to add title

Shipping doors

Tractor trailer

Tractor trailer

Feeder lines

Feeder lines

Overflow

Warehouse LayoutsZone System


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Office Layouts

  • Most formal procedures for designing office layouts try to maximize the proximity of workers whose jobs require frequent interaction.

  • Privacy is another key factor in office design.

  • Four common office layouts:

    • Traditional layouts

    • Office landscaping (cubicles/movable partitions)

    • Activity settings

    • Electronic cottages (Telecommuting)


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Designing Line-Flow Layouts

  • Line balancing is the assignment of work to stations in a line so as to achieve the desired output rate with the smallest number of workstations.

  • Work elements are the smallest units of work that can be performed independently.

  • Immediate predecessors are work elements that must be done before the next element can begin.

  • Precedence diagram allows one to visualize immediate predecessors better; work elements are denoted by circles, with the time required to perform the work shown below each circle.


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Line BalancingExample 8.3

Green Grass, Inc., a manufacturer of lawn & garden equipment, is designing an assembly line to produce a new fertilizer spreader, the Big Broadcaster. Using the following information, construct a precedence diagram for the Big Broadcaster.


Line balancing green grass inc l.jpg

Work Time Immediate

ElementDescription (sec) Predecessor(s)

ABolt leg frame to hopper40None

BInsert impeller shaft 30A

CAttach axle50A

DAttach agitator40B

EAttach drive wheel6B

FAttach free wheel25C

GMount lower post15C

HAttach controls20D, E

IMount nameplate18F, G

Total244

D

H

40

B

20

30

E

6

A

F

40

C

25

50

I

18

G

15

© 2007 Pearson Education

Line BalancingGreen Grass, Inc.


Desired output and cycle time l.jpg

1

r

  • Cycle time, c is the maximum time allowed for work on a unit at each station:

c =

Desired Output and Cycle Time

  • Desired output rate, r must be matched to the staffing or production plan.


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Theoretical Minimum

Theoretical minimum (TM ) is a benchmark or goal for the smallest number of stations possible, where total time required to assemble each unit (the sum of all work-element standard times) is divided by the cycle time. It must be rounded up

Idle time is the total unproductive time for all stations in the assembly of each unit.

Efficiency (%) is the ratio of productive time to total time.

Balance Delay is the amount by which efficiency falls short of 100%.


Output rate and cycle time example 8 4 l.jpg

1

r

  • Cycle time, c= 1/60

    = 1 minute/unit

    = 60 seconds/unit

Output Rate and Cycle TimeExample 8.4

Green Grass, Inc.

  • Desired output rate, r= 2400/week

    Plant operates 40 hours/week

    r = 2400/40 = 60 units/hour


Calculations for example 8 4 continued l.jpg

Calculations for Example 8.4continued

Theoretical minimum (TM ) - sum of all work-element standard times divided by the cycle time.

TM = 244 seconds/60 seconds = 4.067

It must be rounded up to 5 stations

Cycle time: c = 1/60 = 1 minute/unit = 60 seconds/unit

Efficiency (%) - ratio of productive time to total time.

Efficiency = [244/5(60)]100 = 81.3%

Balance Delay - amount by which efficiency falls short of 100%.

(100 − 81.3) = 18.7%


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Green Grass, Inc. Line Balancing Solution

D

H

40

B

20

30

E

S1

S3

6

S4

A

S2

S5

F

40

C

25

50

I

18

G

15

© 2007 Pearson Education

The goal is to cluster the work elements into 5 workstations so that the number of work-stations is minimized, and the cycle time of 60 seconds is not violated. Here we use the trial-and-error method to find a solution, although commercial software packages are also available.

c = 60 seconds/unit

TM = 5 stations

Efficiency = 81.3%


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Other Considerations

In addition to balancing a line, managers must also consider four other options:

1.Pacing: The movement of product from one station to the next as soon as the cycle time has elapsed.

2. Behavioral factors of workers.

3. Number of models produced: A mixed-model line produces several items belonging to the same family.

4. Cycle times depend on the desired output rate, and efficiency varies considerably with the cycle time selected. Thus exploring a range of cycle times makes sense.


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