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Biology 101 A Unit 2 A. Day Three: Intro to Biochemistry. What are Molecules?. Molecules are smallest parts of compounds Compounds with the same chemical formula, but different structures are called isomers. What’s so important about Carbon?. All things living contain carbon

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Biology 101 a unit 2 a

Biology 101 AUnit 2 A

Day Three: Intro to Biochemistry


What are molecules
What are Molecules?

  • Molecules are smallest parts of compounds

  • Compounds with the same chemical formula, but different structures are called isomers


What s so important about carbon
What’s so important about Carbon?

  • All things living contain carbon

  • Organic compounds: carbon containing

  • Carbon frequently bonds because of its 4 valence electrons

  • Chains of carbon atoms in organic molecules are called carbon skeleton

  • If they bond with hydrogen: form hydrocarbons


What are functional groups
What are Functional groups?

  • Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds

  • Usually functional groups are the reactive part of the organic compound

  • All are polar

  • Polarity makes them hydrophilic & soluble


Functional groups
Functional groups

  • Four different functional groups:

  • Hydroxyl: OH; found in alcohols

  • Carbonyl: CO; found in ketones

  • Carboxyl: COOH; found in carboxylic acids

  • Amino: H2N; found in amino acids


What s a macromolecule
What’s a Macromolecule?

Macromolecule: extremely large molecules

Ex: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates

Also referred to as polymers

Polymers are made up of monomers


Making macromolecules
Making macromolecules

  • Dehydration synthesis: when a monomer is added to a chain, a water molecule is removed


Breaking macromolecules
Breaking macromolecules

  • Hydrolysis: reverse of dehydration synthesis

  • Splits monomers by adding water in between them


Quiz

  • A __ reaction involves the addition of water.

    a. dehydration b. hydrolysis c. polar

    2. A polymer is made up of ___.

    a. monomers b. trionomers c. pentonomers

    3. The ___ group is made up of OH.

    a. carbonyl b. carboxyl c. hydroxyl

    4. The ___ group is made up of COOH.

    a. carbonyl b. carboxyl c. hydoxyl

    5. When compounds have the same formula, but different structures they are ___.

    a. clones b. isomers c. isotopes


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