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John paul l oliveros md dpps l.jpg

John Paul L. Oliveros, MD, DPPS

Human PhysiologyBiology 012


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Mechanism and causality

  • Physiology: is the study of how things work

  • Human physiology: individual molecular processes  processes that depend on many separate organs of the body

  • Mechanist view: “all phenomenon, no matter how complex, can be described in terms of physical and chemical laws”

  • Vitalism: “ a vital force, beyond physics and chemistry, is required to explain life”

  • Causality: to reduce a phenomenon to causally linked sequence of scientific events in order to explain it


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Cell theory

  • Cells:

    • Simplest structural units in which a multicellular organism can be dividedand still retain funtions and characteristics of life

    • Cell differentiation: the process of transforming an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell

    • Cells with similar specialization migrate to adhere with other cells to form multicellular structures


Cells l.jpg
Cells

  • 200 different kinds of cells in the body

  • Functional Classification

    • Muscle cells:

      • Generate mechanical forces that produces force and movement

    • Nerve cells:

      • Initiate and conduct electrical signals

  • Epithelial cells:

    • Selective secretions of ions and organic molecules

    • Located on the surfaces

    • Cover the body or organs

    • Line the walls of tubular or hollow structures

  • Connective Tissue cells

    • Connecting, anchoring, and supporting the structures of the body

    • Loose CT, fat cells, blood cells, bone cells


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Tissues

  • Aggregate of a single type of cell

  • 4 classes

    • Muscle tissue

    • Nerve Tissue

    • Epithelial Tissue

    • Connective Tissue

  • Extracellular fluid

  • Extracellular matrix

    • Protein and mineral mixture specific for each tissue

      • Collagen fibers

      • Elastin fibers

      • Protein-carbohydratemixture

    • Functions:

      • Scafold for cellular attachments

      • Transmits information between cells ( chemical messengers)


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Organs and Organ systems

  • Organs:

    • Composed of the 4 kinds of tissues arranged in various proportions and patterns

    • Functional Units:

      • Smaller similar subunits of an organ

      • Performs function of an organ

  • Organ systems:

    • A collection of organs that perform an overall function

    • 10 organ systems


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Internal Environment

  • Cells in our body are not in direct contact with the external environment

  • The overall effect of the activities of the organ systems is to create within the body an environment in which all cells can survive and function

  • Internal environment:

    • Fluid environment surrounding each cell

    • AKA extracellular fluid



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Homeostasis

  • Homeostasis:

    • The relative constancy of the internal environment

    • Changes may occur but are small and kept within narrow ranges

  • Homeostatic control system:

    • a collection of body components that functions to keep a physical or chemical property of the internal environment relatively constant

    • 3 components :

      • Detection of the changes in the magnitude of the property

      • Relaying of information to appropriate sites

      • Commanding particular cells to change their funtion to restore property to its original value


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Body-Fluid Compartments

  • Total Body Water (TBW): 60% of body weight

  • Intracellular Fluid: 2/3 of TBW

  • Extracellular fluid:1/3 of TBW

    • Interstitial fluid

      • 80% of ECF

      • Fluid in between and surrounding cells

    • Plasma:

      • 20% of ECF

      • Blood= plasma + suspended cells (blood cells)


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Body-Fluid Compartments

  • Compartmentalization:

    • Important principle in physiology

    • Achieved by barriers between compartments

    • Barriers regulate passage of substances between compartments

      • Cell membranes: between cells and interstial fluid

      • Blood vessels: between plasma and interstitial fluid



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