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Naturalisation in Europe The Case of the Netherlands and Sweden Trends, Causes and Consequences Pieter Bevelander IMER, Malmö University [email protected] Naturalisation!. Where does Father Christmas come from? How old do you have to be to buy a lottery ticket?

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Naturalisation in Europe

The Case of the Netherlands and Sweden

Trends, Causes and ConsequencesPieter BevelanderIMER, Malmö [email protected]


  • Where does Father Christmas come from?

  • How old do you have to be to buy a lottery ticket?

  • If your adult son declares he’s a homosexual, what do you do?

  • If a film or a book insults your religious feelings, what is your reaction?

  • Why are aboriginal peoples seeking self-government?

  • Who has power to declare war?

    (New York Times, Edward Rothstein, 24 January 2006)

The netherlands and sweden
The Netherlands and Sweden

  • Winning prize?

  • ‘A second passport should not be allowed because the Dutch Passport is the winning prize for a foreigner’

  • and giving up nationality of the home country is ‘a sign of loyalty to the host country’.

    (This according to Minister Verdonk (Minister of Immigration) in an interview for the Dutch newspaper Volkskrant in September 2004)

  • Latest election in Sweden 2002 the social liberal party (Folkpartiet) introduced an obligatory language test for citizenship ascension by immigrants like in most other countries. They were blamed for discrimination and racism.

Data on naturalisation
Data on Naturalisation

  • Naturalisation statistics

  • Census

  • Population registers

  • Surveys

Naturalisation Rates in selected European Countries 1980, 1990 and 2000 (as percentage of the Foreign Population)

Naturalisation Rates in selected European Countries in 2002 1990 and 2000 (as percentage of foreign citizens) (OECD 2005)

Factors influencing naturalisation decision
Factors influencing naturalisation decision countries, 2001-2003

  • Regulations and conditions in receiving country

  • Factors connected to country of origin

  • Migrant characteristics

Factors influencing naturalisation, Results for United States and Canada (Yang 1994, De Voretz & Pivnenko 2004)

  • Individual characteristics: language proficiency, education, economic integration, home owning, marital status, gender, having children

  • Contextual factors: urban population, GNP per capita sending country, admission status, dual citizenship allowed

  • Census data, Not temporal considerations,No cultural factors

Factors influencing Naturalisation Results for The Netherlands and Sweden(Bevelander & Veenman 2004 and 2006, Scott 2006)

  • The Netherlands

    Education, language proficiency, marital status,having children, mixed marriage, refugees and Cultural factors – Self identification, Contacts and Modernisation scale

  • Sweden

    Age, education, marital status, having a pension and other welfare benefits

What is the impact of naturalisation on socio economic integration
What is the Impact of Naturalisation on Socio-Economic Integration?

  • Surprisingly little is known!

  • Canada – positive effect on relative earnings

  • The Netherlands – no effect on employment and relative earnings for imigrants from traditional immigrant countries – positive effect for refugee immigrants

  • Sweden – naturalisation is the revealed portion of other characteristics – no direct effect

What is needed
What is needed! Integration?

  • More detailed data

  • More research on consequences

  • Cross-country comparison for policy Evaluation