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Biotechnology- When biology meets technology. Why is genetic engineering a valuable tool in Biology?. What is biotechnology?. Application of biological techniques to manipulate DNA to benefit humans Biotechnology has impacted the fields of forensics, medicine, and agriculture.

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biotechnology when biology meets technology

Biotechnology- When biology meets technology

Why is genetic engineering a valuable tool in Biology?

what is biotechnology
What is biotechnology?
  • Application of biological techniques to manipulate DNA to benefit humans
  • Biotechnology has impacted the fields of forensics, medicine, and agriculture.
biotechnology forensics
Biotechnology- Forensics
  • Forensics uses scientific techniques to collect evidence
  • Used to analyze different DNA samples at a crime scene or to determine paternity of a child and compare it to a known sample
  • Process is called DNA fingerprinting and uses the technique of gel electrophoresis to conduct the DNA fingerprinting.
forensics dna fingerprinting process
Forensics- DNA Fingerprinting process
  • Take DNA samples and use restriction enzymes to cut the DNA at certain sites.
  • The samples are placed in an agarose gel and into an electrophoresis machine where electrical charges are used to separate the pieces of DNA by size and molecular weight
  • Creates a banding pattern for each sample
  • If a crime scene blood sample was taken and a suspects sample matches up with the crime scene definitive evidence of guilt. In paternity tests matching band pattern must be seen between child and father
dna fingerprinting animation
DNA Fingerprinting Animation
  • http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp16/1602001.html
  • http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/paternitytesting.html
selective breeding and hybridization
Selective Breeding and Hybridization

Allowing only organisms with desired traits to produce offspring

Crossing dissimilar organisms to bring together the best of both organisms

Examples:

Mule – Donkey and Horse

Liger – Lion and Tiger

Tangelo – Tangerine and

Pomelo

Wheat plants – Mostly hybrids

Selected for ability to resist disease,

weather tolerance, and produce

the most grains

advantages disadvantages
Advantages/Disadvantages

Perks: Allows for desired improvement of a species. Humans select traits that they find appealing.

Disadvantages:

  • Beef Cattle – Bigger cattle produces more meat. More meat = More $

“Double Muscling”

  • (Problems with birthing) cows have a harder time birthing their young because they are too big.
  • Loss of certain traits over time if the same ones are repeatedly passed down.
advantages disadvantages1
Advantages/Disadvantages
  • Sterility results in some animals which means they cannot produce offspring.
  • Generally will make plants hardier and more disease resistant.
  • Can combine disease resistance with food-producing capabilities. (Crops)
biotechnology in medicine recombinant dna technology transformation
Biotechnology in Medicine ( Recombinant DNA Technology)- Transformation
  • Genetic alternation of one organism’s DNA to transform it to express a section of another organism (foreign) DNA
  • Bacteria are usually used as vectors to place beneficial genes inside because they can mass produce the gene quickly

Example: Using bacteria to create insulin. Humans use the bacterial plasmid to insert desired genes and have the bacteria produce the product in this case, human insulin. Using transformation is a faster and cheaper process to assist humans need for insulin.

recombinant dna technology in agriculture genetic engineering in plants
Recombinant DNA Technology in Agriculture- Genetic Engineering in Plants
  • Recombinant transformation can also happen with crops  called plant hybridization
  • Desired genes can be inserted into crop DNA to:
    • enhance the vitamins by inserting genes for specific vitamins (golden rice- enhanced with Vitamin A)
    • Resist certain insects, can tolerate herbicides, prevent rotting
food genetic engineering gmo
Food Genetic Engineering- GMO
  • Genetically Modified Foods
    • Rice, tomatoes, corn, and other common food products have been genetically modified withstand harsher tempertures, grow larger, be preserved longer on shelves,make toxins so pests don’t eat them.
    • Cows that produce human milk (contain human gene)
advantages of biotechnology in agriculture
Advantages of Biotechnology in Agriculture
  • Advantage- Can help individuals that have deficiencies.
  • Advantage- Crop yield increases and can have a longer life
  • Advantage- farmers can charge and make more money
  • Advantage- the food that we eat may contain more nutrients
disadvantages of biotechnology in agriculture
Disadvantages of Biotechnology in Agriculture
  • May cause health related issues in human (e.g. allergic reactions) since the inserted genes come from a foreign vector and the foods are not labeled if they have been genetically modified. Not FDA regulated
  • Environmental threat- herbicide tolerant crop plants do not die when exposed to weed killing chemicals, so an increased amount may have to be sprayed to ensure greater weed control can affect the habitats of other animals in the
  • Genetic pollution- cross pollination of genetically modified plants can become pollinated by non-genetically modified plants by wind, birds, and insects.
genetically modified foods
Genetically Modified Foods
  • http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/programme/programme_gmf/programme_gmf_er_res2.html
biotechnology gene therapy
Biotechnology- Gene Therapy
  • Use a vector (virus) and place needed genes in to replace faulted genes
  • Used for cancer therapy, replacing missing factors and enzymes in organism
gene therapy
Gene Therapy
  • http://www.edu365.cat/aulanet/comsoc/Lab_bio/simulacions/GeneTherapy/GeneTherapy.htm
cloning
Cloning
  • Creating an identical copy of something – produced from a single cell.
  • When cloning animals we are not certain about the effects on the created organism. Usually cloned organisms are sick and do not live very long.
    • Ex. Dolly and premature aging
advantages of cloning
Advantages of cloning
  • Creating tissues for transplantation that would not be rejected by the organism- therapeutic cloning
  • Using these tissues to help fight diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s (replace damages brain cells)
  • Create therapeutic proteins like antibodies (monoclonal antibodies)and have several copies
disadvantages of cloning
Disadvantages of cloning
  • Reduced the variety in a species since all organisms have the same genetic information. Think of cloning humans…we would all have the exact same traits not good as a species
  • Organisms that are cloned usually experience premature aging
  • Going against the natural order of things in the world.
therapeutic cloning stem cell research
Therapeutic Cloning- Stem Cell Research
  • Stem cell: cells found within the body that have not become specialized for a particular function
  • Found in adult bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and human embryos
  • May be able to take a patient’s own disease free cells and grow them outside of the body when needed and alter them to create a specific cell type that is needed
  • Re-introduce them into patient for possible therapy benefits
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