Section iii hinduism and buddhism pages 61 64
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Section III: Hinduism and Buddhism (Pages 61-64). This section is about: How Hinduism became the dominant religion in India. The religion of Jainism (founded on the Hindu tradition of non-violence).

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Section III: Hinduism and Buddhism (Pages 61-64)

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Section III: Hinduism and Buddhism(Pages 61-64)

This section is about:

  • How Hinduism became the dominant religion in India.

  • The religion of Jainism (founded on the Hindu tradition of non-violence).

  • The religion of Buddhism and how it arose as an alternative to the formal religion of Buddhism.

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  • On page 61: Compare and Contrast: we’ll do this at the end.

  • The Main Ideas…

  • And… In India: Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism are have some similarities, but some differences in beliefs and practices.

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Meanings of all the above symbols

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One of the most complex religions.

Has no single “father”

no “sacred text”.

No identifiable beginning.

No authority or organization.

Came from the many cultures who settled in India.

It’s a religion, a history, and a way of life.

Hinduism

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Hinduism accepts many gods and goddesses…

  • …but are all part of one universal spirit – called Brahman.

    The most important:

  • Brahma: the creator of the universe

  • Vishnu: The preserver

  • Shiva: the destroyer

  • All of these are part of Brahman – who is everlasting and endless.

  • Brahman is the cause, source, and reason for all existence.

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Reincarnation: you have a “spirit” that is re-born into another life form after you die.

Karma: are the actions of your life – and determines where your spirit will be re-born.

Dharma: is your religious and moral duties.

And don’t forget the caste system (which is a big part of this): you can’t move your standing in this life, but your spirit can after you die.

Ahimsa: non-violence to all living creatures – the absence of desire to harm any living thing (even yourself)

Hindu Beliefs

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Jainism (another religion from India):

  • A religion that comes from ahimsa.

  • It’s a religion of non-violence.

  • This includes EVERY living thing – even insects and worms.

  • So that kind of limited their lives (can’t be a farmer).

  • Some people are still living parts of their lives based on Jainism.

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  • The internal austerities are

  • Atonement of sinful acts

  • Practice politeness and humility - in spite of having comparatively more wealth, wisdom, social status, power, etc.

  • Service to others, especially monks, nuns, elders and the weaker souls without any expectations in return

  • Scriptural study, questioning and expanding the spiritual knowledge

  • Abandonment of passions – especially anger, ego, deceit and greed

  • Meditation

  • The external austerities are meant to discipline the sensual cravings.

  • Fasting

  • Eating less than one's normal diet

  • Abstention from tasty and stimulating food

  • Practicing humility and thankfulness – by seeking help and offering assistance without egoistic tendencies

  • Practicing solitude and introspection

  • Mastering demands of the body

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The Rise of Buddhism

  • Began about 500 B.C. (a time of great social change and religious activity).

  • Many people wanted a simpler way of life than Hinduism and all their rituals.

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  • Buddhism accepted some (by not all Hindu ideas).

  • Karma and Reincarnation were kept.

  • The caste system was rejected by Buddhists – they said all people had great potential.

  • Buddhism is “founded” by Siddhartha Gautama (known as: the Buddha – which means “awakened one” or “enlightened one”)

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Buddhist tradition…

  • Says the Buddha lived many lives before his birth as Siddhartha Gautama.

  • Before he was born, his mother had a dream about a white elephant descending from heaven.

  • Brahman priests told her it meant her son would wither be a ruler or a wandering holy man.

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So his father raised him well – and hoped he would be happy living a rich life at home.

  • But, when he was 29, Siddhartha left home to see how others lived.

  • He saw a very old man, a sick man, and a dead man. He was so unhappy that others were suffering that he decided to leave home and go look for” the way of truth.

  • He wandered for 6 years – giving up all comforts and pleasures.

  • One day he decided he was going to sit under a tree until he understood the “mystery of life.”

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All of a sudden, one day he figured it out – and became “the Buddha”

  • For the rest of his life he taught “the four noble truths”

  • All human existence is full of pain and suffering.

  • The cause of suffering is selfish desire.

  • The only freedom from suffering is to overcome desire.

  • The only way to overcome desire is to follow “the eightfold path”

  • and not worry about worldly cares any more

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Stop here for now

Finish the bottom of page "E"

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