Educational research research problems and the research plan l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 84

Educational Research: Research Problems and the Research Plan PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 166 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Educational Research: Research Problems and the Research Plan. EDU 8603 Educational Research Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. Research begins with a problem. The research problem …. …a question arising from personal experience or thought. …lends itself to further investigation.

Download Presentation

Educational Research: Research Problems and the Research Plan

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Educational research research problems and the research plan l.jpg

Educational Research: Research Problems andthe Research Plan

EDU 8603

Educational Research

Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.


Research begins with a problem l.jpg

Research begins with a problem...

The research problem…

…a question arising from personal experience or thought

…lends itself to further investigation

…transforms through the problem identification process into the research topic


Sources of research problems l.jpg

Sources of research problems...

personal experience

theory

replication


Slide4 l.jpg

personal experience…

…hunches

…serendipity

…sensitivity


Slide5 l.jpg

theory…

…an organized body of concepts, constructs, generalizations, and principles that can be subjected to investigation


Slide6 l.jpg

replication…

…conducting the study again to verify or disconfirm previous findings


The characteristics of a good research topic l.jpg

The characteristics of a good research topic...

interesting

…related to area of expertise and of significant personal/professional interest


Slide8 l.jpg

researchable

…can be investigated through the collection and analysis of data


Slide9 l.jpg

of practical significance

…contributes to the body of human knowledge and/or professional practice


Slide10 l.jpg

manageable

…fits the level and skills of the researcher(s), needed resources, and time restrictions


The statement of the research topic l.jpg

The statement of the research topic...

Indicates the variables of interest to the researcher (X, Y), the specific relationship between those variables that will be investigated, and the nature of the participants involved


Slide12 l.jpg

…accompanied by a presentation of the background of the topic

…provides justification for the study in terms of its significance

…indicates the prediction of the results of the research findings

…states the limitations of the study


The review of the literature l.jpg

The review of the literature...

The systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem


Slide14 l.jpg

…identifies research already completed of significance to the research topic

…points out research strategies and specific procedures that have not been found to be productive in investigating the research topic

…facilitates interpretation of study results


Cautions from experience l.jpg

Cautions from experience...

bigger does not mean better

heavily researched topics provide best primary sources

less-researched topics require the review of any study meaningfully related to the topic in order to formulate a logical framework for the study and a sound rationale for the research hypothesis


Literature sources l.jpg

Literature sources...

primary

secondary

tertiary


Slide17 l.jpg

primary

…a published study written by the researcher(s) who conducted the study


Slide18 l.jpg

secondary (“cited in”)

…contain complete bibliographic information in the references section that can direct the researcher(s) to relevant primary sources

…an excellent source indicating significant research studies that have influenced the research


Slide19 l.jpg

tertiary

…reports what others have summarized about a particular research topic in a convenient format

…oftentimes not a reputable source for the breadth and depth of research into a particular topic


Cautions from experience20 l.jpg

Cautions from experience...

carefully evaluate sources

keep careful notes of the literature reviewed

build correctly formatted bibliography during the literature review process

write abstract for each entry which includes key words


Writing a review of the literature l.jpg

Writing a review of the literature…

 involves a technical form of writing that requires clarity in definitions and consistency in the use of terms

 in the social sciences, the normative guide is the Manual of Style of the American Psychological Association


The five elements of a review of the literature l.jpg

The five elements of a review of the literature…

1. Outline

2.Analyze/organize references (in reverse chronological order)

3.Compare/contrast like references

4. Arrange references (“V” form)

5. Summarizes literature and identifies implications


The review of the literature frames the hypothesis l.jpg

The review of the literature frames the hypothesis…

  • A hypothesis…

…tentative prediction of the results of the research findings that states the relationship between the variables identified in the research topic


Types of hypotheses l.jpg

Types of hypotheses…

  • Inductive hypothesis…

…a generalization based on observed relationships

…oftentimes used for qualitative research studies


Slide25 l.jpg

  • deductive hypothesis…

…a generalization derived from theory

…oftentimes used in quantitative research studies


Slide26 l.jpg

  • research hypothesis (H1)…

…states an expected relationship between at least two variables

…directional: states the expected direction of the relationship or difference

…nondirectional: states that a relationship or difference exists


Slide27 l.jpg

  • null hypothesis (H0)…

…states that there is no significant relationship or difference between two variables


Stating a hypothesis l.jpg

Stating a hypothesis…

  • A good hypothesis is stated clearly and concisely, expressing the relationship between two variable and variables in measurable terms


Slide29 l.jpg

  • involves at least three variables…

P: the participants

X: the treatment, causal, or independent variable

Y: the observed outcome, effect, or dependent variable


Stating a research hypothesis l.jpg

Stating a research hypothesis…

P who get X do better on Y

than P who do not get X


Stating a null hypothesis l.jpg

Stating a null hypothesis…

There is no difference on Y between P who get X

and P who do not get X


Other general considerations l.jpg

Other general considerations…

  • Ethical obligations

  • Legal restrictions

  • Gaining access

  • Conducting a pilot study


Ethical obligations l.jpg

Ethical obligations…

  • the ends do not justify the means

…a primary responsibility to maintain the well-being of study participants

…National Research Act of 1974 requires prior review and approval by an approved board as well as informed consent of study participants


Legal restrictions l.jpg

Legal restrictions…

  • the issues of confidentiality and personal privacy

…The Privacy Act of 1974 safeguards and protects the privacy of students’ educational records (“freedom from harm”)


Slide35 l.jpg

  • the issue of deception

…a study that requires deception should be reviewed by an advisor and/or the Human Subjects Review Committee


Gaining access l.jpg

Gaining access…

  • Oftentimes requires getting approval to conduct the study in the chosen site

…use salesmanship to demonstrate the design’s careful study, value of study, as well as its minimal intrusiveness into and inconvenience for participants’ routine


Conducting a pilot study l.jpg

Conducting a pilot study…

  • a small scale field test of the research study provides a means to identify unanticipated problems or issues

…allows for revisions and improvements to the research plan prior to conducting the study


The research plan l.jpg

The research plan…

  • A detailed description of the procedures to be used to investigate a research topic


Slide39 l.jpg

…provides an overview of the study to be conducted and permits an assessment of the impact of any changes that may be needed as the study is undertaken

…indicates the tentative prediction of the results of the research findings


An overview of the five basic components of a research plan l.jpg

An overview of the five basic components of a research plan...

1. Introduction

2.Method

3.Data Analysis

4.Time Schedule

5.Budget (if appropriate)


1 the introduction section l.jpg

1. The introduction section...

  • Provides an overview of the topic to be studied, reviews the related literature to present a rationale for conducting the study and, where appropriate, states the hypothesis in a style to facilitate the reader’s understanding


Slide42 l.jpg

Statement of the topic…

…given the nature of the particular research approach adopted, describes the background of the topic and provides a rationale for the significance of the study


Slide43 l.jpg

Review of the literature…

…provides an overview of the topic and references related to what is currently known (unknown) about the topic

…indicates the need for further research


Slide44 l.jpg

Statement of the hypothesis…

…clearly and concisely states the expected relationship (or difference) between the variables of the study, defining those variables in operational, measurable, or common-usage terms


2 the method section l.jpg

2. The method section...

  • Describes the procedures used by the researcher to select participants, measure effects, and analyze the data

…the approach to the conduct of the study defines the method (e.g., descriptive, causal-comparative, correlational, experimental, historical, ethnography)


Slide46 l.jpg

Research participants…

…identifies the number, source, and characteristics of the sample and defines the population from which the sample will be selected


Slide47 l.jpg

Instruments…

…the research that will be used in the study to measure the variables stated in the hypothesis


Slide48 l.jpg

Materials/Apparati…

…identifies any special booklets, training manuals, or computer programs as well as any machines or ancillary items to be used when conducting the study


Slide49 l.jpg

Design…

…the general strategy for the conduct of the study


Slide50 l.jpg

Procedure…

…a description of each step that will be followed when conducting the study, from beginning to end, in the order in which each step will occur


3 the data analysis section l.jpg

3. The data analysis section...

  • Identifies the analysis technique(s) to be used in the study


4 the time schedule section l.jpg

4. The time schedule section...

  • Lists the major activities or phases of the proposed study and the corresponding expected completion time for each activity


5 the budget section l.jpg

5. The budget section...

  • Identifies the costs associated with conducting the study


To recapitulate l.jpg

To recapitulate...

The five elements of a research plan…

…Introduction

…Method

…Data Analysis

…Time Schedule

…Budget (if appropriate)


Mini quiz l.jpg

Mini-Quiz…

  • True or false…

…the worth of a research topic is a function of the amount of literature available on the topic

false


Slide56 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…abstracting the references involves locating, reviewing, summarizing, and classifying the references

true


Slide57 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…the majority of research findings contribute to the body of human knowledge

false


Slide58 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…Boolean operators involve the use of connectors in a search string to broaden and narrow a key word search

true


Slide59 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…qualitative research involves special ethical considerations because the degree of proximity between participants and researcher(s) can introduce subjectivity into data interpretation

true


Slide60 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…a good research hypothesis is inconsistent with theory or previous research

false


Slide61 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…time spent in the library after formulating the research topic will save time in the long run

true


Slide62 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…in a research study, references are arranged in chronological order

false


Slide63 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…the hypothesis is formulated from a theory or the review of the related literature before the study is executed

true


Slide64 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…the analysis of the data does not lead to a hypothesis being proven or disproven

true


Slide65 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…any research study that requires deceitful practice cannot be carried out

false


Slide66 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…topics that contain the word should cannot be answered by research of any kind, because they ultimately are a matter of opinion

true


Slide67 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…the review of the literature provides a rationale for the research hypothesis

true


Slide68 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…researchers normally start the review of the literature by reading primary sources

false


Slide69 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…a researcher sets out to prove the hypothesis

false


Slide70 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…a refereed journal is one in which the articles have been reviewed by a panel of experts

true


Slide71 l.jpg

  • True or false…

…an operational definition explains what a variable is

false


Slide72 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…the researcher does not know the identities of the participants providing data for the study

anonymity


Slide73 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…the group to which the researcher would like the results of a study to be generalizable

population


Slide74 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…a chart that identifies the concurrent activities that are part of a research study

Gantt chart


Slide75 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…the researcher knows the identities of the participants providing data for the study but will not release those identities to anyone else

confidentiality


Slide76 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…a number of individuals selected from the population for a study

sample


Slide77 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…a tool used by researchers to gather data

instrument


Slide78 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…the general strategy for conducting a research study

design


Slide79 l.jpg

  • Fill in the blank…

…a field test of a research study usually tried out on a small scale to identify unanticipated problems or issues

pilot study


Slide80 l.jpg

  • Which type of hypothesis…

…there is a significant difference in the achievement of 10th-grade biology students who are instructed using interactive multimedia and those who receive regular instruction only

nondirectional


Slide81 l.jpg

  • Which type of hypothesis…

…there is no significant difference in the achievement level of 10-grade biology students who are instructed using interactive multimedia and those who receive regular instruction only

null


Slide82 l.jpg

  • Which type of hypothesis…

…tenth-grade biology students who are instructed using interactive multimedia achieve at a higher level than those who receive regular instruction only

directional


This module has focused on l.jpg

This module has focused on...

the research plan

…which describes the procedures to be used to investigate a research topic


The next module will focus on l.jpg

The next module will focus on...

research participants

...as the foundation for understanding the importance of selecting a representative group of participants as well as the techniques to achieve this outcome


  • Login