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Warm-up. What was the Blank Check and what did that mean to Austria What was the Zimmerman note and what did that mean for Americans sentient at home? Why did Germany feel it had to continue its unrestricted submarine warfare?. The Last Year of the War.

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Warm up
Warm-up

  • What was the Blank Check and what did that mean to Austria

  • What was the Zimmerman note and what did that mean for Americans sentient at home?

  • Why did Germany feel it had to continue its unrestricted submarine warfare?


The last year of the war
The Last Year of the War

  • Last German offensive, March 21-July 18, 1918

  • Allied counterattack, Second Battle of the Marne, July 18, 1918

  • General Ludendorff informs German leaders that the war is lost

  • William II abdicates, November 9, 1918

    • Flees to Holland

    • Blames the Jews and the socialists

  • Republic established

  • Armistice, November 11, 1918

  • The Casualties of the War

    • 8 to 9 million soldiers killed, 22 million wounded


WWI

THE ROAD TO PEACE?

''We are Making a New World' (1918) By: Paul Nash

“YOU CAN WIN THE WAR AND LOSE THE PEACE”


Diplomacy during the war
Diplomacy during the war

  • 1915 Neutral Italy entered the war against the Central Powers (their former allies) with the Promise of ITALIA IRREDENTA (“unredeemed Italy”) and some German colonies in Turkish territories

    • Tertino, Trieste, Dalmatia, Istria, South Tyrol, Gorizia, Ticino, Nice, Corsica, and Malta


Balfour note 1917
Balfour Note (1917)

  • Arabs and Jew in Palestine promised autonomy if they joined the Allies

  • Britain declared sympathy for idea of Jewish homeland in Palestine – Zionism

    • Promises Palestine (Israel) to both people

  • Arabs are currently living in Palestine

  • Policy contradict British support for Arab nationalism

  • BIG PROBLEMS AHEAD!!!





ARMISTICE SIGNED

11 a.m., November 11, 1918


10,000,000 Dead



Revolutionary upheavals in germany and austria hungary
Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary

  • Revolution in Germany

    • Division of German Socialists

    • Formation of two governments

    • Failure of radicals to achieve control

  • Revolution in Austria

    • Ethnic upheaval

    • Formation of independent republics


The peace settlement
The Peace Settlement

  • Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied nations

  • Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points

  • Pragmatism of other states

  • Lloyd George determined to make Germany pay

  • Georges Clemenceau of France concerned with his nation’s security

  • January 25, 1919, the principle of the League of Nations adopted


THE PARIS PEACE

CONFERENCE

  • January 1919

  • 27 Nations Attend

  • THE BIG FOUR

  • 5 Treaties negotiated

  • Treaty of Versailles

Italian Prime Minister Orlando

French Prime Minister Clemenceau

British Prime Minister George

U.S. President Wilson

“Big Four”


THE BIG THREE

WOODROW WILSON

GEORGE CLEMENCEAU

DAVID LLOYD GEORGE


GEORGE CLEMENCEAU

  • (1841-1929)

  • France

  • Revenge – lasting security

  • “The Tiger”

  • 1917 Prime Minster

  • “Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start war again.”


WOODROW WILSON– Peace without Victory

  • (1856-1924)

  • United States President (1913-1921)

  • Idealistic

  • “Safe for Democracy”

  • Nobel Peace Prize 1919

  • League of Nations

  • National Self-Determination

  • Drops pamphlets all over Germany based on his 14 pt plan


DAVID LLOYD GEORGE

  • (1863-1945)

  • Minister of Munitions

  • Secretary of War

  • Prime Minister 1916

  • “Welsh Wizard”

  • Moderate View – Peace Efforts

  • Predicted a renewed War within 20 years


June 28, 1919

Hall of Mirrors

Germany reluctantly signed the treaty

The US Senate never ratified the treaty

Many people in France and Britain were upset that there was no trial for Kaiser Wilhelm II and other war leaders

THE TREATY

OF VERSAILLES


The treaty of versailles
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

  • Mandates– For formal colonies and territories for the central powers

  • French

  • British

  • Arab promise

    Not kept


Article 231
Article 231

  • Germany takes sole blame for the war

    • Germany pays reparations to Britain and France

      • 132 billion gold marks

    • German army and navy significantly reduced

    • Rhineland demilitarized

    • Saar coal mines taken by France

    • Germany lost all its colonies



The other peace treaties
The Other Peace Treaties

  • German and Russian Empires lost territory in eastern Europe

  • New nation-states: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary

  • Romania acquired additional lands from Russia, Hungary, and Bulgaria

  • Yugoslavia

  • Compromises will lead to future problems

  • Minorities in every eastern European states

  • Ottoman Empire dismembered

    • Promises of independence of Arab states in the Middle East

    • Mandates

      • France – Lebanon and Syria

      • Britain – Iraq and Palestine

  • United States Senate rejects the Versailles Peace Treaty


WEIMAR REPUBLIC

  • 1919-1933

  • Replaced the imperial gov’t

  • Federal Republic

  • National Assembly – Constitution

  • President, Chancellor

  • Reichstag - Parliament


WILSON’S 14 POINTS

  • Point 1 – end to secret treaties

  • Point 2 – allow freedom of the seas

  • Point 3 – encourage free trade through the cessation of nationalist economic policies

  • Point 4 – all nations participate in weapons reductions

  • Point 5 – establish a fair system for the settlement of colonial claims

  • Point 6-13 – self determination, occupied territories should be evacuated

  • Point 14 – International political organization


LEAGUE OF NATIONS

  • 1919 - 1946

  • BRAIN CHILD OF WOODROW WILSON

  • GOALS: Prevent War, Disarmament, Collective Security, Negotiation and Diplomacy between countries

  • FAILURES: Lacked an armed force, US never joins – Policy of Isolationism

  • SUCCESSES: Territorial disputes, Silesia, Saar, opium trade, slavery, plight of refugees

  • PRINCIPAL OF SELF-DETERMINATION


League of nations
League of Nations

  • Russia and Germany left out

  • U.S. failed to ratify this which resulted in U.S. isolation

    • Wilson gives up on what he sees as negatives in return for this part of the treaty

      • Senate refuse as they want to maintain power to declare war. National power??


CONSEQUENCES

  • Unprecedented casualties

  • Versailles settlement did not destroy Germany = bitter and vengeful

  • Russian Revolution = USSR / COMMUNISM

  • Propaganda – military weapon – “disinformation”

  • Severe economic stress

  • Women = roles in the workplace, respect, vote

  • Birth rate goes down as there are fewer men


CONSEQUENCES

  • End of political dynasties

  • Hapsburg dynast removed in Austria (lasted 500 years)

  • Romanov dynasty removed in Russia (lasted 300 years)

  • Hohenzollern dynasty removed in Germany (lasted 300 years)

    • Prussian / German

  • Ottoman Empire destroyed (lasted 500 years)


CONSEQUENCES

  • PUNISH GERMANY – Rhineland Demilitarized

  • WAR GUILT CLAUSE – Germany forced to accept responsibility for the outbreak of the War

  • Reparations – Germany to pay for war damage

  • Alsace – Lorraine returned to France

  • British confiscated merchant fleet

  • French took railway, freight cars, and factory machinery, Saar basin temporarily annexed

  • Japan was given German territory in the Pacific

  • Britain gained German territory in Africa


CONSEQUENCES

  • GEO-POLITICAL

  • Poland – recreated – “corridor” created to cut through Germany to provide access to the sea – port of Danzig

  • Czechoslovakia created out of Bohemia and Moravia, and Sudetenland

  • Austria reduced to a pygmy state

  • Yugoslavia created

  • Romania doubled in size, Bulgaria reduced in size

  • Greece gain territory






INTERBELLUM

  • Inter war period (1918-1939)

  • Questioning of the idea of ‘progress’

  • The Great Depression (1929-39)

  • The rise of Totalitarian Dictatorship – Fascism and Communism


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions

  • Why were so many Europeans eager for war in 1914? Did Europe’s governments share their enthusiasm?

  • What was “total war”? How did European governments meet the challenge of total mobilization?

  • Why were so many people in the United States reluctant to get involved in World War I? Why did Woodrow Wilson see U.S. involvement as a necessity?

  • Describe the goals of the major participants at the peace talks. How were these goals incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles?


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