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The role of urban buses in the concepts of sustainable mobility, climate protection, air quality improvement and noise reduction. Falk Heinen Section Transport and Environment, Electric Mobility (IG I 5) 13. Februar 2012. 1. Overview. Challenges: Climate and Transport, Air quality, Noise

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Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

The role of urban buses in the concepts of sustainable mobility, climate protection, air quality improvement and noise reduction

Falk HeinenSection Transport and Environment, Electric Mobility (IG I 5)

13. Februar 2012

1


Overview

Overview

  • Challenges: Climate and Transport, Air quality, Noise

  • Sustainability concepts for transport

  • New buses in public transport

  • Hybrid bus projects

  • E-buses

  • Ongoing activities/ situation in Germany

  • Results on research of new bus concepts and projects- availability- fuel consumption- emissions/ noise


First global reconstruction of temperature for past 11 300 years the past 11 300 years

First Global Reconstruction of Temperature for Past 11.300 yearsthe Past 11 300 Years

Source:Marcott et al. Science 2013,aus: Schellnhuber, Klimakongress,

2013


Which reduction of ghg for 2 degrees target

Which reduction of GHG for 2-degrees-target?


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

Global challengefortransport

  • All sectors with reductions except transport sector, e. g. Germany reduction of all sectors by 30 % between 1990 and 2010; transport: reduction only 9,8 %.

  • Reductions for 2°C-target needs in-sector achievements, i. e. no shift of obligations between sectors

  • Targets for Transport Sector in Germany: Reduction Final Energy Consumption by 10 % (2020) and 40 % (2050); discussion about national sectoral targets

  • Transport EU: Reduction of CO2-emissions by 60 % compared to 1990 until 2050 (Concept Text Transport)

  • Energy EU: Minimum share of 10 % renewable Energy in the Transport Sector until 2020

EU-wide emissions sectorsin CO2e, index. (1990=100), Eurostat

Calculations: McKinsey for BMU, 2010 Remark: -50% is lower “Safety line” for 2 degrees target


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

Postponement of the attainment deadline for NO2

Notification of 57 air quality zones according to Art. 22

COM Decision 20 February 2013:

33 cases denied (limit value will not be attained in 2015)

17 allowed

7 allowed on conditions (submission of final air quality plans)


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

How to reduce emissionsin passenger transport?

total emissions

transport demand[passenger km]

energy intensity[joule per pkm]

CO2-intensity[CO2e per joule]

=

x

x

Avoid traffic

e.g. reduce needs for mobility and distancesby means ofintegratedplanning

Shift traffic and

push efficiency

e.g. reduce fuelconsumptionof vehicles andshift traffic totowards moreefficient modes

Switch fuel

e.g. use lowcarbon fuels such assustainablebiofuels orrenewableelectricity

approaches

Hybrid buses

Electric buses

Source: Composition of total emissions in passenger transport, simplified display after Creutzig/Edenhofer in IVW


Instruments of sustainable mobility

Instruments of sustainable mobility

Emission standards

  • Land transport EURO-standards

  • Environmental zones

    Reductionoftransportnoise

  • Innovation programmesforrailvehicles

  • EU-standards fortyres

  • International Noise standardsforairplanes

  • Requirementsof BImSchG (e. g. noiseactionplans)

    Taxesas environmental steeringinstrument

  • Reductionoffueltaxationforpublictransport

  • Benefitsforrefitwithparticulatefilter

  • Taxexemptionsforfuelswithsignificatreductionsof CO2emissions

    Support/ fundingof environmental beneficialvehicles

  • New versionof national transport plan (in preparation)

  • Environmental standardsforpublicprocurement in publictransport

  • National cycling plan


Key reasons for funding better buses

Key reasons for funding „better buses“

Main goals

  • Reduction of CO2-emission, pollutants and noise within the sector of public transport

  • Support of Market penetration with existing, highly efficient transport technologies

  • Establishing new technology with lower emissions as permanent element in the fleet of transport companies

  • Stimulation of economy for bus industry and related suppliers

  • Increase attractiveness of Public Transport

Noise measurement (source: BMU)


What are better buses

What are „better buses“?

Main elements – different stages

  • Reduction of air pollutants, mainly NOx and PM: today SCR, particulate filter

  • Gas buses?:1. CNG: no real CO2-benefit2. lower NOx/ PM emission3. Biogas: CO2-benefit dependent on well-to-wheel balance, waste problem, competition with food4. Noise problems remain

  • Hybrid buses: efficiency technology, introduces electric mobility to public transport

  • Electric buses: various technologies available, test phase, main challenges: battery and charging


Bmu project 2010 11

BMU project 2010/ 11

  • 12 companies:

    • Stadtverkehr Lübeck GmbH

    • Üstra Hannoversche Verkehrsbetriebe AG

    • 10 transport companies in Saxony

  • Introduction of 50hybrid buses in scheduled service

  • 65 – 85 % of extra costs for hybrid elements and support


Environmental criteria bmu project

Environmental criteria BMU project

  • Definition of ambitious environmental criteria in order to promote market entry and to save environmental standards:

    • Reduction of CO2-Emissionen by 20 % compared to equivalent dieselbus

    • NOX- and PM-emissions at EEV level

    • Exhaust aftertreatment with closed particulate filter

    • Underscore EU-noise level

  • Controlofcriteriawith extensive researchprogram: noisemeasurements on testingarea, controlofemissions on rollertestbench, extensive additional analyses on practicability, technicalproblems, cost-benefit, acceptance


Continuation of support of hybrid buses

Continuation of support of hybrid buses

  • As of 2012 newprojectwithfinancialsupportofthe BMU-National Climate initiative (NKI)

  • Hugepoliticalsupportforpromotionofnewclimatefriendlytechnologies

Environmental requirements (like 2010)- 20 % improvement compared to conv. veh.- EEV plus closed particulate filter, EuroVI 2014- underscore noise standards

Key issue: cost effectiveness/ profitability

Main goal: closure of gap between costs and return

Result:- despite reduced funding rate about 60 buses in the programme as of today, e. g. in Hamburg, Wolfsburg, Ingolstadt


E buses a new perspective with potential

E-buses – a new perspective with potential

  • New trend- No local LAQ emissions- good climate balance, but only with renewables- reduction of noise emissions

  • Energy storage

    • Regular service of urban buses of 300 km and more with corresponding energy consumption of about 500 kWh

    • Recharging in most cases necessary

  • Fast charging:

    • Due to limited stopping time high charging power necessary (200 kW or more)

    • Further work required on infrastructure

  • Auxiliary technology (heating, climatisation, …)

    • Extra energy source or significant increase in electric energy consumption

  • Further evolution- main challenges battery and recharging/ time for recharging- economic consideration- environmental performance towards climate

* Quelle: Fraunhofer


E buses in erneuerbar mobil

E-buses in „Erneuerbar mobil“

E-buses in Hannover:

  • Pilot projectwiththree E-buses in scheduledservice

  • Fast chargingat final stationwithelectricityofoverheadlineoftheüstrasystem

  • Onecirclelineofinner urban area in Hannover

  • Additional research in ordertoanalysetechnicalfeasibility, costeffectiveness, acceptance, benefitfortheenvironment

  • Hamburg:

  • Service ofthree Plug-In-Hybrid- andthree E-buses in scheduledserviceof Hamburger Hochbahn AG

  • Rechargingatstartingandendpointoflinewithpantographwith high charging power (upto 300 kW)

  • Collectionofinformation in contextwithpracticalday-to-dayapplication, acceptance, reductionofemissions, cost-benefitanalysis


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

Gemeinsame AG

Innovative Antriebe Bus

  • Common workinggroup „Alternative optionsforpubliclandtransport“ oftransportandenvironmentministry

  • Exchange oftransportcompanies, manufacturers, scientificexperts, associations

  • Goals:

    • Exchange abouttechnologies, practicability, environmental performance, cost-effectiveness

    • Documentationandassessmentofstate-of-the-art

    • Data collectionandanalysisof all projectswith BMU/ BMVBS funding

    • Identificationofpossibleoptimisationoftechnologiesandapplication

      KEY QUESTIONS: Whichtechnologyis promising, whereandhow?


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

AG Bus - Projektübersicht

  • 28 Projekte

  • 146 Dieselhybridbusse

    • 70 Solobusse

    • 76 Gelenkbusse

  • 25 Elektrobusse

  • 8 BZ Busse

VB Hamburg-Holstein (10 S) eBTOHamburger Hochbahn (5 G)

ErPaDHamburger Hochbahn (5 S, 15 G)

Held

Hamburger Hochbahn (3 SP, 3 SE)

SaHybJasper (10 S), Süderelbe Bus (5 S)

NaBuZdemoHamburger Hochbahn (4 S BZ)

Stadtverkehr Lübeck (5 S, 5 G)

G = Gelenk

S = Solo

M = Mini-/Midi-

Suffix E = Elektro-

Suffix BZ = Brennstoffzelle

Suffix P = Plug-In Hybrid

Inmod Mecklenburg-Vorpommern GBB (1 ME), BBW (1 S), HS Wismar (1 S)

HybridbusWolfsburgWolfsburger Verkehrsgesell. (3 S)

  • RegioHybrid

  • Döbeln, Freiberg - Regiobus Mittelsachsen (10 S)

  • Dresden - DVB (3 S, 3 G)

  • Leipzig - LVB (3 G)

  • SaxHybrid

  • Dresden - DVB (10 G)

  • Leipzig - LVB (10 G)

  • SaxHybrid Plus

  • Stadt – Verkehrsbetrieb (1 G)

  • Linie 79

  • Dresden – DVB (1 ME)

  • eBusBatterfly

  • Leipzig – LVB (2 ME)

  • eBus Skorpion

  • Leipzig – LVB (vorauss. 1 GE)

Hybridbusse in Hannover üstra (10 G)

Hub Osnabrück Stadtwerke Osnabrück AG (2 ME)

E-bus Berlin

BVG(5 SE)

EMIL Braunschweiger Verkehrs-AG (1 SE, 5 GE)

  • EFBEL

  • Verkehrsverbund Rhein Ruhr

  • Krefeld - SWK Mobil (4 G)

  • Hagener Straßenbahn (2 S, 2 G)

  • Dortmund - TRD Reisen (2 S)

  • Bochum - BOGESTRA (5 G)

Hybridbusse für Ingolstadt

Stadtbus Ingolstadt (3 S)

Primove Road Pilsting (1 SE)

FREEKassel - Regionalmanagement Nordhessen (1 ME)

HybridbuserprobungMünchener Verkehrsgesellschaft (MVG) (2 S, 2 G)

Hyline S Stuttgart - SSB (5 GP)

S presso

Stuttgart - SSB (4 S BZ)

ElvoDrive

Voith AG (1 S)

BMVBS

Primove Mannheim Mannheim - RNV GmbH (2 SE)

BMU

Stand: 21.11.2013

BMWi

Source: PE International, AG Bus


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

Someresults


Technical evaluation performance and time of operation

Technical evaluationPerformance and time of operation

Collectiondataof 57 Hybridbussen

Performance

  • Sum: 1,3 Mio. km

  • Performance per vehicle: 6.700 – 29.800 km, (Ø ca. 22.200 km)

  • Average dailyperformance: 229 km

    Time ofoperation

  • overall: 77.000 hours

  • Daily average: 15,3 h

Source: PE International, AG Bus


Availability hybrid vs diesel

Availability Hybrid vs. Diesel

100%

98%

92%

79%

77%

77%

71%

70%

69%

64%

Period: Jan - September 2013

Comp. 1

Hybrid

Diesel

  • Average availability BMU project (2011/ 2012:

    • Hybrid buses: 81%

    • Reference buses: 92%

  • Hybrid elements: availability 93 %

  • Loweravailability in coldmonthsJanuary/ February

  • Increasedavailabilityoverperiod; nearlyequaltoconventionalbuses

Comp. 5

Comp. 3

Comp. 2

Comp. 4

Source: PE International, AG Bus


Fuel consumption first results

Fuel consumption: first results

  • Comparisonwithcomparableconventionaldieselvehicles (Euro V/EEV)

  • BMU-Projekt - 12 projectswithfuelsavingsofupto19% (average > 10 %)- dependency on route characteristics, technology, energystorage, manufacturer (someatthebeginningwith extra fuelconsumption)- variationsovertheyear: betterresultsoversummer

  • WG buses(onlyfewmonths, statisticaluncertainties)- 12 m: upto 34 %, 18 m: upto 21 % (somebelow 10 %)- averagebetween 10 and 20 % currently- parallel hybridssignificantlybetter, robust resultsover 20 %- firstcompaniesexpectbreak-evenduringlifetime (!)- completerestartofcost-benefitanalysis-> FURTHER DETAILED ANALYSIS NECESSARY


Test bench measurements noise

Test bench measurements/ noise

  • All buses within BMU project achieved requirements for NOx/ PM (PM below detection limit)

  • Exhaust temperature higher than concv. Engines (SCR)

  • CO2 reductions between 20 and 30 %

Gelenkbus auf dem Rollenprüfstand (Diesel-Referenz), (Quelle: TÜV NORD)

  • Significantreductionsofnoise in particular in front partofthebus

  • Perceptionofpassengersandamongpedestrians: muchlowernoise, veryimportantelementofacceptability

Geräuschmessung auf der ISO-Messstrecke in Papenburg

(Quelle: TÜV NORD)


Some conclusions

Some conclusions

  • SignificantGHG reductionsin transportsectorrequiredtoachieve 2°-target

  • Other importantrequirements: airqualityandnoisereduction

  • Public transportoneimportantelement but furtherimprovementoftechnologynecessary

  • Technological evolutionstartedandisaccelerating: moreelectricity(with all suboptions) andlessconventionalfuel.

  • Hybrid busesasnewelement in German and European fleetsintroduced

  • Variousprojectson different paths: hybrid buses, plug-in hybrid busesandelectricbuses

  • E-busesasnewelementwithmainchallenges „battery“, „charging“ and „costs“

  • High acceptanceofnewtechnologiesamongpassengersandpedestrians, but also drivers

  • New bustrendsleadtomoresustainability: lessemissions, lessnoise

  • Economicquestions/ costeffectivenesswill remainasonekeyissue


Falk heinen section transport and environment electric mobility ig i 5 13 februar 2012

Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit!

Thank you for your attention!

[email protected]

1) http://www.bmu.de/verkehr/foerderprojekte/hybridbusse/doc/45346.php

2) http://www.pt-elektromobilitaet.de/projekte/hybridbusse


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