Corso integrativo al Corso di Diritto Costituzionale Anno Accademico 2008-2009 Nuovi diritti di libertà Prof.ssa Valentina Sellaroli. LE APPLICAZIONI DELLA GENETICA TRA FAMILIARITA’ E DISCRIMINAZIONE PROFILI PENALISTICI LA FAMILIARITA’ DELLE CARATTERISTICHE GENETICHE
LE APPLICAZIONI DELLA GENETICA TRA FAMILIARITA’ E DISCRIMINAZIONE
LA FAMILIARITA’ DELLE CARATTERISTICHE GENETICHE
LA BANCA DATI DEL DNA IN Italia: normativa, d.d.l., giurisprudenza
IL PRELIEVO COATTIVO
…ma è davvero così?
2 ordini di domande:
Che cosa comporta ciò?…
Aprile 2002: una anziana donna viene trovata violentata ed uccisa nel paesino di Dobbiaco.
Abbondanti tracce biologiche sulla vittima.
I principali sospettati vengono esclusi dalle primissime indagini.
Gli investigatori sono convinti che l’assassino sia “uno del posto” e notano una notevole omogeneità tra i profili genetici degli abitanti del luogo…
Non ci sono altri sospettati
non sono più possibili da parte del giudice “altri provvedimenti necessari per la esecuzione delle operazioni peritali”
Diritti di libertà personale non solo e non tanto nel senso di inviolabilità fisica, ma anche nel senso di inviolabilità personale in senso lato:
Un nuovo doppio livello di privacy:
uno diretto ed individuale
un altro personale ma indiretto ed allargato alla cerchia dei congiunti di ciascun individuo
“…ma la polizia federale non è una organizzazione criminale e dunque non ci sono da temere abusi…”
Mr. Craig Harman was convicted of manslaughter on the basis of “familial DNA searching” which linked him to the crime scene via a close relative’s DNA profile. Harman threw a brick from a bridge over a motorway which crashed through the windscreen of a lorry. The brick hit driver’s chest and killed him. Police obtained a DNA profile of the assailant from blood on the brick, but could not match it to anything on the UK’s national Databank because Harman had no criminal convictions. The Police used familial searching to uncover a close relative of Harman’s, who had a criminal conviction and was on the DNA bank. The relative’s profile matched the DNA on the brick by 16 out of 20 locations. This lead the Police to Harman, whose DNA gave a perfect match.
He confessed the crime.
Rudolph Mooshammer, a famous aute couture tailor and eccentric person, was murdered after a tragic altercation for an unpaid homosexual affair
Policemen found some murderer’s hair on the crime scene and extracted a clear DNA profile of the crime’s author
In 36 hours Police reached the murderer, Mr. H. Herish and a perfect match with his DNA profile was found
German police found Mr. Herish searching in the national DNA database but his profile should not have been stored into the database
He gave his bio-sample years before in order to be excluded from another criminal investigation and, according to the German law, he should have been excluded after that.
La legittimità di speculative searches e della possibilità di sfruttare i vantaggi del family searching è messa in dubbio anche dove risorse investigative come la comparazione dei profili genetici e delle banche dati genetiche sono da tempo ammesse e regolamentate
UNA BANCA DATI DEL DNA A FINI FORENSI è UN DATABASE IN CUI PROFILI DI DNA, PROVENIENTI DA FONTI DIVERSE, SONO CONSERVATI A FINI DI INVESTIGAZIONI FUTURE
Cercare corrispondenze tra profili genetici ottenuti dalla vittima o provenienti dalla scena del crimine e profili genetici contenuti nel database
.. L’Italia sta ancora aspettando
The first applicant, Mr S., was arrested on 19 January 2001 at the age of eleven and charged with attempted robbery. His fingerprints and DNA samples1 were taken. He was acquitted on 14 June 2001.
The second applicant, Mr Michael Marper, was arrested on 13 March 2001 and charged with harassment of his partner. His fingerprints and DNA samples were taken. Before a pre-trial review took place, he and his partner had become reconciled, and the charge was not pressed. On 11 June 2001, the Crown Prosecution Service served a notice of discontinuance on the applicant's solicitors, and on 14 June the case was formally discontinued.
Both applicants asked for their fingerprints and DNA samples to be destroyed, but in both cases the police refused. The applicants applied for judicial review of the police decisions not to destroy the fingerprints and samples. On 22 March 2002 the Administrative Court (Rose LJ and Leveson J) rejected the application.
….e i contro
Occorre trovare un bilanciamento tra ordine pubblico e protezione dei diritti individuali
In tal senso i punti cruciali sono:
1. Quali profili vengono inseriti in banca dati?
2. Per quali reati si viene inseriti in banca dati?
3. Per quanto tempo i profili devono/possono rimanere in banca dati?
Devono essere rimossi:
4. Anonimato dei profili genetici e identificazione
5. Conservazione dei campioni biologici
PRUM CONVENTION, 27 May 2005 MARCATORI AD USO FORENSE
between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Austria on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism, cross-border crime and illegal migration
DNA profiles and fingerprinting and other data
Establishment of national DNA analysis files
1. The Contracting Parties hereby undertake to open and keep national DNA analysis files for the investigation of criminal offences. Processing of data kept in those files, under this Convention, shall be carried out subject to its other provisions, in compliance with the national law applicable to the processing.
2. For the purpose of implementing Convention, the Contracting Parties shall ensure the
availability of reference data from their national DNA analysis files as referred to in the first sentence of paragraph 1. Reference data shall only include DNA profiles* established from the non-coding part of DNA and a reference. Reference data must not contain any data from which the data subject can be directly identified. Reference data not traceable to any individual (untraceables) must be recognisable as such.
3. When depositing instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, each
Contracting Party shall specify the national DNA analysis files to which Articles 2 to 6 are applicable and the conditions for automated searching as referred to in Article 3(1).
* For the Federal Republic of Germany, DNA profiles as referred to in this Convention shall mean DNA-Identifizierungsmuster (DNA identification patterns).
Automated searching of DNA profiles
1. For the investigation of criminal offences, the Contracting Parties shall allow other
Contracting Parties' national contact points, as referred to in Article 6, access to the reference
data in their DNA analysis files, with the power to conduct automated searches by comparing
DNA profiles. Search powers may be exercised only in individual cases and in compliance
with the searching Contracting Party's national law.
2. Should an automated search show that a DNA profile supplied matches a DNA profile entered
in the Contracting Party's file searched, the searching contact point shall receive automated
notification of the hit and the reference. If no match can be found, automated notification of
this shall be given.
Automated comparison of DNA profiles
1. For the investigation of criminal offences, the Contracting Parties shall, by mutual consent,
via their national contact points, compare the DNA profiles of their untraceables with all
DNA profiles from other national DNA analysis files' reference data. Profiles shall be
supplied and compared in automated form. DNA profiles of untraceables shall be supplied
for comparison only where provided for under the requesting Contracting Party's national law.
2. Should a Contracting Party, in the comparison referred to in paragraph 1, find that any
DNA profiles supplied match those in its DNA analysis file, it shall without delay supply the
other Contracting Party's national contact point with the reference data with which a match
has been found.
Alcune raccomandazioni (Gene Watch Report, UK, 2005) MARCATORI AD USO FORENSE
“DNA profiling is the single most important advance in police investigation techniques since the development of fingerprint classification systems in the late nineteenth century. CrimTrac's new National Criminal Investigation DNA Database will offer Australia's police services the enhanced ability to solve more crimes more quickly.”
Tutela delle libertà individuali police investigation techniques since the development of fingerprint classification systems in the late nineteenth century. CrimTrac's new National Criminal Investigation DNA Database will offer Australia's police services the enhanced ability to solve more crimes more quickly.”
Politica della sicurezza?
Tutela delle libertà individuali
Politica della sicurezza
In ogni caso, la caratteristica di condivisione dei dati genetici rende particolarmente delicata la questione delle FAMILIAL SEARCHING