Violent media and children
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Violent Media and Children. Luke Pinion, M.S.E. University of Wisconsin - Whitewater. Media Violence History. Historical concern Increased with Bandura’s work Social Learning Theory Surgeon General’s S cientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior formed (1969)

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Violent media and children

Violent Media and Children

Luke Pinion, M.S.E.

University of Wisconsin - Whitewater


Media violence history

Media Violence History

  • Historical concern

    • Increased with Bandura’s work

      • Social Learning Theory

  • Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior formed (1969)

  • APA passed resolution (1985)

    • Informed public of dangers


Media violence history cont

Media Violence History (cont.)

  • Children’s Television Act (1990)

    • New regulations for TV stations

    • Updated again in 1996

  • APA’s Task Force on TV and Society (1992)


Media popularity

Media & Popularity

  • A typical child in the U.S.

    • Watches 28 hours of TV a week

      • Watches 8,000 murders by the end of elementary school

      • 75% of these murderers get away with it

      • No remorse or accountability

    • 40+ hours a week using some type of media

    • 1-7.5 hours a day playing video games

      • Age dependent


Violence in today s media

Violence in Today’s Media

  • Prevalence of violence inmedia

    • 70% of prime time programs

      • 5 violent incidents per hour

    • 90% of children’s programming

      • Upwards of 20 violent incidents per hour

    • 80% of cable programs contained violence

      • Varied considerably by channel type


Violence in today s media1

Violence in Today’s Media

  • Portrayal

    • Glamorized

    • Sanitized

    • Trivialized

    • Antiviolence themes rare


Why is violence so attractive

Why is Violence So Attractive?

  • Desire for excitement

    • 13% of students

  • Desire for virtual experience of aggression

    • Empathy effect

    • Pleasure from violence

  • Opportunity to ignore restrictions

    • “Forbidden fruit”


Why is violence so attractive1

Why is Violence So Attractive?

  • Relatable

    • Understand violence in society

    • Aggressive youth like to watch programs portraying similar characteristics

  • Study criminal world

    • Learn lessons

      • Alternate ways?

  • Complacency

    • Escape fears and problems

  • The effect of gender

    • “aggression effect”


Sensitivity

Sensitivity

  • The effects of violent entertainment are complex and varied

    • Individual characteristics

    • Age

    • Amount of exposure


Risk factors

Risk Factors

  • Increase the likelihood of being affected by media violence

    • High TV viewers

    • Unpopular children

    • Lessintelligent children

    • Low SES

    • Low parental supervision


Risk factors1

Risk Factors

  • Increase the likelihood of aggression

    • Environmental

      • Low SES

      • Parenting style

      • Lack of parental affection

      • Drug use

      • Attitudes and beliefs supporting aggression

    • Physiological

      • Temperament

      • Impulsivity

      • Hormone disorders


Children s cartoons today

Children’s Cartoons Today


Behavioral effects of media violence

Behavioral Effects of Media Violence

  • Increase impulsivity

  • Encourages a lack of concern/empathy for human suffering

  • Justifies real-life violence

  • Imitation of violent

    behavior

  • Decrease in academic

    performance

  • Aggressive thoughts

    and actions


Psychological effects of media violence

Psychological Effects of Media Violence

  • Desensitization

  • Increases in hostility

  • Less trust

  • Fear

  • Indifference


Social effects of media violence

Social Effects of Media Violence

  • Encourages the idea that violence is an acceptable way to solve social conflicts

  • Gender Stereotypes

    Encouraged


Violent video games

Violent Video Games

  • Worse than violent TV?

    • Identification with aggressor

    • Active participation

    • Addictive nature

      • Reinforcing to play


Violent video games1

Violent Video Games

  • Can increase

    • Aggressive thoughts

    • Aggressivefeelings

    • Aggressive behavior

  • Predictor of delinquent behaviors

  • Possible decrease in academic performance


Music popularity

Music Popularity

  • Importance to youth

    • Survey of middle and high school students

    • Average of 21 hours per week listening

    • Gender differences

    • Ethnic differences

  • Affective uses

    • Gender differences

  • Social uses

  • Changes over the decades


Violent music

Violent Music

  • Heavy metal

    • High in violent and sexual themes

    • Listeners (in comparison)

      • Conflict with teachers

      • Perform less well academically

      • Distant from families

      • Risky behavior

      • Depression


Violent music lyrics

Violent Music Lyrics

  • Increases

    • Hostile attitudes

    • Aggressive thoughts

    • Aggressive emotions

    • Adversarial sexual beliefs

  • Emotional “sound” vs. lyrics

  • Effects not as strong as visual media

    • Violent music videos much more powerful


Media violence long term effects

Media ViolenceLong-Term Effects

  • Studies in the 1960’s

    • Long-term effects only for boys

  • Current research

    • Longitudinal study (Huesmann et al., 2003)

      • Increased aggression as adults

      • Antisocial and violent behaviors


Parental monitoring

Parental Monitoring

  • Variability

    • Sociodemographics

  • Many set limits but don’t enforce

    • Lack of supervision

    • No way of monitoring

    • TVs everywhere

    • Lack of concern

  • 45% co-view with child


Parental monitoring1

Parental Monitoring

  • Monitoring decreases with child’s age

    • Older child = less monitoring

  • Limiting exposure more common among mothers

  • 61% of children 8 years and older had no rules about TV watching (Kaiser Family Foundation Report)


Positive effects of television music and video games

Positive Effects of Television, Music, and Video Games

  • Play

  • Promote

    • Literacy

    • Thinking

    • Reflecting

    • Creativity

  • Educational/academic purposes

    • Teaching

    • Learning

  • Academic performance


Positive effects of television music and video games1

Positive Effects of Television, Music, and Video Games

  • Motor skills

    • Hand-eye coordination

  • Learn prosocial behaviors

  • General development

  • Teaching

  • Collaboration

  • Fantasy


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Reduce/limit exposure

    • V-chip

    • Set limits/rules with child and enforce

  • Parental co-viewing and commenting

    • Discuss content with child

    • Increase father involvement

  • Monitor

    • Is this ok for their age, personality, maturity, developmental level?


Recommendations cont

Recommendations (cont.)

  • Screen all music/game/movie purchases

  • Be familiar with the rating scales

  • Promote positive/educational media

    • Use media productions to change violent attitudes

  • Promote media literacy regarding media violence

    • Media Literacy Interventions

  • Awareness of risk factors

    • Is your child/student more susceptible?


References

References

  • Browne, K. D. (2005). The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: A public-health approach. The Lancet, 365, 702-710.

  • Cantor, J., & Wilson, B.J. (2003). Media and violence: Intervention strategies for reducing aggression. Media Psychology, 5, 363-403.

  • Gentile, D.A., & Anderson, C.A. (2003). Television violence. In D.A. Gentile (Ed.). Media violence and children a complete guide for parents and professionals (pp. 131-152). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

  • Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J, Podolski, C.L., & Eron, L.D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.

  • Riley, D. M. (n.d.). 2007 U.S. video game and PC game sales exceed $18.8 billion marking third consecutive year of record-breaking sales. RetrievedApril 20, 2008, from http://www.npd.com/press/releases/press_080131b.html

  • Senate Committee on the Judiciary. (1999). Children, violence, and the media a report for parents and policy makers. RetrievedApril 18, 2008, from http://judiciary.senate.gov/oldsite/mediavio.html

  • Strasburger V. C., & Wilson, B.J. (2003). Television violence. In D.A. Gentile (Ed.). Media violence and children a complete guide for parents and professionals (pp. 57-86). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

  • Vessey, J. A., & Lee J.E. Violent video games affecting our children. Pediatric Nursing, 26, 607-610..

  • Wilson, B.J., & Martins, N. (2006). The impact of violent music on youth. In N.E. Dowd, D.G. Singer, & R.F. Wilson (Eds.), Handbook of children, culture, and violence (pp. 179-202). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, Inc.


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