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Mechanical Disciplinary Research. Marissa Caldwell, Anya Godigamuwe, Valerie Miller, Yuka Narisako , Jimmy Weaver. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems (VRF). [James Weaver]. The Vapor Compression Cycle. Condenser Coil. Expansion Valve. Compressor. Evaporator Coil.

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Mechanical Disciplinary Research

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Mechanical disciplinary research

Mechanical Disciplinary Research

Marissa Caldwell, Anya Godigamuwe, Valerie Miller,Yuka Narisako, Jimmy Weaver


Variable refrigerant flow systems vrf

Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems (VRF)

[James Weaver]


The vapor compression cycle

The Vapor Compression Cycle

Condenser Coil

Expansion Valve

Compressor

Evaporator Coil


Variable refrigerant flow volume systems

Variable Refrigerant Flow/Volume Systems

  • A VRF System operates by sending refrigerant between an outdoor and indoor unit.

  • The outdoor unit houses the condenser and compressor.

  • The indoor unit houses the evaporator.

  • Refrigerant is varied to each indoor unit based on the desired load using electronic expansion valves or pulse modulating valves.

  • Heat Recovery is available through the reuse of energy from superheated refrigerant.

Figure 2: VRV System in a tall building. Provided by Daikin Industries, Ltd.

Goetzler, William. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems. ASHRAE Journal. April 2007.


Advantages vs disadvantages

Advantages Vs. Disadvantages

  • Advantages:

  • Lightweight and modular

  • Flexible Design

  • Minimal Ductwork

  • Individual Comfort Control

  • Energy Efficient – High Part Load Efficiency

  • Disadvantages:

  • Initial Costs

  • Refrigerant Piping Concerns

  • Cold Climate Issues

  • Market Acceptance

  • Many Require a Dedicated Outdoor Air System

Figure 3: Heat Recovery VRF System. Provided by ASHRAE Journal, April 2007.

Goetzler, William. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems. ASHRAE Journal. April 2007.


Potential project benefits

Potential Project Benefits

  • A multi-purpose building can benefit from space by space comfort control.

  • Minimal Ductwork can provide solutions to challenging space and coordination issues.

  • Energy performance from a VRF system can improve a building operational costs.

Figure 4: Temperature distribution in a building. Provided by Daikin Industries, Ltd.

Figure 5: VRV system with 100% Outside Air Unit. Provided by Daikin Industries, Ltd.

Goetzler, William. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems. ASHRAE Journal. April 2007.


Thermal energy storage

Thermal Energy Storage

[Yuka Narisako]


Thermal energy storage definition

Thermal Energy Storage – Definition

  • Store unused energy when it is undesired and release it when it is necessary to reduce energy waste.

http://www.calmac.com/products/icebank.asp


Thermal energy storage types of systems

Thermal Energy Storage – Types of Systems

  • Time/Consumption based

    • Peak shaving

  • Heating

    • Hot water tanks in homes

    • Thermal mass

  • Cooling

    • Water pumped from dams

    • Water storage units

    • Ice storage units

  • http://www.calmac.com/products/icebank.asp


    Thermal energy storage real world example

    Thermal Energy Storage – Real World Example

    • Nissan Technical Center North America Inc.

      • Farmington Hills, MI

    • Duquesne University

      • Pittsburgh, PA

      • Add ice making chiller and ice storage unit

    http://www.energystorageexchange.org/


    Thermal energy storage possible use for project

    Thermal Energy Storage – Possible Use for Project

    • Reduce cooling load by installing small chiller and ice storage unit

      • Lower cost

      • Reduce size of mechanical room

      • Possibly provide cooling for future


    Energy recovery ventilator erv

    Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV)

    [Valerie Miller]


    Energy recovery ventilator definition

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Definition

    • Energy Recovery Ventilators (ERV’s) utilize conditioned waste air energy to precondition outdoor air, by the use of a heat exchanger.

    • Heating and cooling

    • All ERV’s transfer sensible heat (temperature); some types transfer latent heat (humidity)

    Space AirconditioningPLC

    Sustainable Sources


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

    • Plate to Plate

    • Runaround Coil

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems1

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

      • Enthalpy Wheel

      • Wheel spins between exhaust and outdoor air duct, transferring the heat from the hotter air to the cooler air

      • Sensible and Latent heat; transfers heat and moisture

      • Small cross-contamination

      • Ducts must be close

    • Plate to Plate

    • Runaround Coil

    Sacramental Municipal Utility District Energy Info. Library

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems2

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

    • Plate to Plate

      • Air streams pass through alternating plates

      • Air streams never come in contact; no cross-contamination

      • Ducts must be close

    • Runaround Coil

    Fantronix Online Ventilation Solutions

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems3

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

    • Plate to Plate

    • Runaround Coil

      • Coil’s containing a medium run through the exhaust system

      • No cross-contamination

      • Ducts can be any distance

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems4

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre

    Trane


    Energy recovery ventilator example

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Example

    • McAllister Building

      • (2) enthalpy wheel ERV’s

      • 73.7% and 71.4% effective

      • <0.04% cross-contamination

    OPP Commissioning Wikispaces


    Energy recovery ventilator example1

    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Example

    • Carnegie Mellon University's Intelligent Workplace

      • Enthalpy wheel

      • Reduced heating load by 77%

    • James W. Meacham’s Spring 2003 Senior Thesis

      • Grade School, Philadelphia, PA

      • Enthalpy Wheel cost summary showed a cost savings of ~$25,000 in the first year, a 4 day payback period

    • Installing an Enthalpy Wheel in new construction allows you to downsize equipment and save money up-front

      • Florida school saved $25,000 up-front by equipment downsizing

    http:[email protected]/5521845253/in/photostream/

    • Greenheck: Energy Recovery Application Manual:

    Proceedings of IMEC2006: 2006 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    An FPL Technical Primer: Energy Recovery Ventilation

    • Greenheck: Energy Recovery Application Manual:


    Earth coupled systems

    Earth-Coupled Systems

    [Anya Godigamuwe]


    Earth coupled systems definition

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Definition

    • Using the near constant temperature of the Earth to heat spaces in winter and to cool spaces in summer

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems types of systems

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Types of Systems

    Closed Loop

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems types of systems1

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Types of Systems

    Open toReinjection

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems types of systems2

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Types of Systems

    Standing

    Column

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems real world example

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Real World Example

    • 7R Building at EEB Hub, Navy Yard, Philadelphia

    Source: KieranTimberlake


    Earth coupled systems real world example1

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Real World Example

    • 7R Building at EEB Hub, Navy Yard, Philadelphia

    Source: KieranTimberlake


    Earth coupled systems possible use for project

    Earth-Coupled Systems– Possible Use for Project

    Pros

    Cons

    • Could provide 80% heating/cooling needs

    • Short payoff period

    • Not suited for 24/7 cooling

    • Requires a large area of land

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Radiant floor heating

    Radiant Floor Heating

    Marissa Caldwell


    Radiant floor heating definition

    Radiant Floor Heating – Definition

    • Supplies heat to the floor from tubing or cables under the floor

    • Radiant Heat Transfer

    • Heats from floor up

    • Natural circulation through convection

    http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/radiant-heating


    Hydronic vs electric

    Hydronic vs. Electric

    • Hydronic

      • Uses pumps and valves to regulate flow based on design temps

      • Longer to heat up floor

      • Requires a boiler

    • Electric

      • Uses conduit to pass electricity at night to heat the thermal mass, and radiate heat during the day


    Radiant floor heating types of systems

    Radiant Floor Heating– Types of Systems

    • Wet Installation

      • Tubing is placed within the concrete slab

      • Allows for the use of energy storage in the thermal mass

    • Dry Installation

      • Plywood is placed on top of the tubing

      • It can be either sandwiched in or the tubing is stapled to the underside of the flooring

    http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/radiant-heating


    Radiant floor heating real world example

    Radiant Floor Heating – Real World Example

    • Herbert Jacobs House – Wisconsin

      • Wright 1st to use radiant floor heating in a US home

    • Hearst Tower – New York

      • Radiant floor heating was added in their three-story atrium to avoid heating unoccupied space

    • California Academy of Sciences – California

      • 35-foot-high museum space, reduced energy through heating by 10%

    http://www.calacademy.org/academy/building/sustainable_design/


    Radiant floor heating possible use for project

    Radiant Floor Heating – Possible Use for Project

    • This system is ideal for large spaces with high ceilings

    • Improved indoor air quality

    • Inexpensive if the building already has a boiler

    • Allows for open layouts

    Thermal Dynamics of Radiant Floor Heating – Darren Cent


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