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Overview. Introduction into the CANDY model. Results of calibration and simulation procedures:. Trace gas measurement field and black fallow of short term experiment. Plant development of crop rotation (short term experiment) and 100 years NPK plot (13).

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Overview

  • Introduction into the CANDY model.

  • Results of calibration and simulation procedures:

  • Trace gas measurement field and black fallow of short term experiment.

  • Plant development of crop rotation (short term experiment) and 100 years NPK plot (13).

  • Corg and Nmin of crop rotation (short term experiment) and 100 years plots (1, 6, 13, 18).


environment

OM-pools properties

management

climate data

soil properties

crop properties

management

min./org. fertilzers

pesticides

crop development

OM-turnover

N-dynamics

dynamics of pesticides

CANDY model

Parameters

Driving force

soil water dynamics

soil temp. dynamics

Initialisation

initial values

observation

Output

Output

fluxes

concentrations


CANDY - input data (1)

Initial conditions

Management data

  • Preferable initial observations of:

  • soil moisture

  • soil mineral nitrogen

  • Corg or decomposable carbon (CDEC)

  • At least:

  • average values of preceding management (crops & yields, org. matter applicatons)

  • Level of nitrogen application

  • Soil moisture level

  • Mineral N fertilization:

  • - Date

    • - Quantity (N-Input kg/ha)

    • - type of fertiliser

  • Organic manure:

  • - Date

  • - Quantity (C –Input kg/ha)

  • - type of manure

  • Cropping:

  • - (Date of sowing)

  • - Date of emergence

  • - Date of harvest

  • - Yield (t/ha)

  • - N-Uptake (kg/ha)

  • Soil tillage (>1 dm):

  • - Date

  • - Depth


  • CANDY - input data (2)

    Climate data

    • Daily global radiation (J / cm²)

    • or duration of sunshine (h)

    • Daily precipitation (mm)

  • Daily temperature (° C)

  • Alternatives

    Generated climate data

    Monthly aggregated data

    Adaptation of rainfall intensity


    CANDY - input data (3)

    Soil parameters (each soil horizon):

    • depth of soil horizon (dm)

    • mineral density (g/cm3)

    • bulk density (g/cm3)

    • permanent wilting point (VOL%)

    • field capacity (VOL%)

    • clay content < 2µm (M %)

    • fine silt content 2-6,3 µm (M %)

    • saturated conductivity (mm/d)

    • Not necessary but appreciated:

    • Soil water measurements (VOL%)

    • observations of C and N dynamics in soil


    CREP-Flux

    CANDY - C-N-Dynamics

    Nitrogen turnover: linked to carbon mineralization according to the C/N-ratio of the respective fraction.

    Long term stabilised carbon


    Soil texture:

    T+fS, Körschens (1980)

    T, Rühlmann (1999)

    Initialisation - estimation of long term stabilised carbon pool ('inert pool‘ = CLTS)

    organic carbon:

    Long term stabilised carbon

    Corg, Falloon (1998)

    Soil structure, organic carbon:

    CIPS, Kuka


    {

    PWP , bare soil

    PWP*0.75 , with crop

    Wmin=

    CANDY - Soil water dynamics

    surface runoff

    infiltration

    evapotranspiration

    = f( PET, [W-Wmin],…)

    capacity concept

    air

    availabale water

    soil pore space

    non available water

    percolation = f( ks, [W-Wcap] )

     CANDY calculates daily changes of water, temperature, carbon and nitrogen


    Trace gas measurement field and bare fallow

    No calibration: using median soil parameters and the 'Körschens' approach to calculate CLTS.



    Trace gas measurement field and bare fallow

    No calibration: using median soil parameters and the ‘Körschens’ approach to calculate CLTS.

    No calibration:total organic Carbon is considered to be decomposable Carbon.

    Calibration to soil moisture and Corg of bare fallow.

    Calibration to soil moisture and Corg of bare fallow plus additional Carbon source.




    Bare fallow

    Sum of squares

    Standard param. 0.034

    Total Corg = dec. 0.139

    Calibrated to b. f. 0.019

    Sum of squares

    Standard param. 1393

    Total Corg = dec. 88258

    Calibrated to b. f. 1987


    Plant development of crop rotation

    and 100 years NPK plot

    Calibration to soil Corg and N-uptake of crop rotation.

    Simulating the 100 years NPK plot.

    Calibration to 100 years NPK plot.


    Partial integration of the

    SIMWASSER crop modell in CANDY

    plant development

    dry matter production

    N-uptake

    transpiration

    LAI

    h=f(DC)

    d=f(DC)



    Distributions of observed to simulated N-uptake

    Calibration to crop rotation

    Adapted TK TK

    parameter crop r. 100 y.

    Sugar beet 2.92 2.53

    Potato 4.58 4.42

    Spring barley 0.57 0.82

    Winter wheat 1.77 1.14

    Simulating the 100 years NPK plot

    Calibration to 100 years NPK plot


    Crop rotation and 100 years plots

    Calibration to soil Corg and Nmin of crop rotation.

    Simulating the 100 years plots 1, 6, 13, 18.

    Calibration to soil moisture, Corg and Nmin of crop rotation.

    Simulating the 100 years plots 1, 6, 13, 18.


    Calibration to

    crop rotation

    Adapted Calib. Calib.

    Parameters (1) (2)

    dB 1.53 1.36

    dM 2.77 2.73

    FC - 29.3

    PWP - 17.4

    FP 24.5 27.0

    CLTS-coefficient

    (Körschens)0.055 0.055

    C/NSOM 10.7 8.5

    Sum of Calib. Calib.

    squares (1) (2)

    Corg0.042 0.042

    Nmin 11799 7028


    Simulation of

    100 years plots

    (1) Calibration to C, N

    Sum of Calib. Calib.

    squares (1) (2)

    Plot 1 1.76 1.60

    Plot 6 1.05 0.93

    Plot 13 0.34 0.21

    Plot 18 0.16 0.30

    (2) Calibration to W, C, N


    Conclusions

    • Decomposition of soil organic matter is not sufficient to explain the measured CO2 emission.

    • There must be an additional source for measured CO2.

    • In order to simulate N-uptake by plants, log term data set are not necessary.

    • Calibration to a short term dataset is not sufficient to simulate Corg changes resulting from different fertiliser variants for a 100 years period.

    • For the differentiation of the fertiliser variants further parameters has to be adapted.


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