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Chapter 6 Section 1. Romans create a Republic. Roman Legends. Home of Romulus and Remus. According to Roman legend Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus who were the sons of the god Mars and a Latin Princess. They were abandoned at the Tiber River and raised by a she-wolf. 1. The Reality.

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chapter 6 section 1

Chapter 6 Section 1

Romans create a Republic

roman legends
Roman Legends

Home of Romulus and Remus

  • According to Roman legend Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus who were the sons of the god Mars and a Latin Princess.
  • They were abandoned at the Tiber River and raised by a she-wolf.
1 the reality
1. The Reality
  • Rome was actually settled because of its strategic location and the availability of good soil.
groups that settled the area
Groups that settled the Area
  • Latins: were shepherds and farmers who built small settlements or huts on top of Palatine Hill.
  • Greeks: Established about 50 colonies across S. Italy and Sicily and brought Greek Civilization to all of Italy. They also taught Romans how to grow olives and grapes.
  • Etruscans: Native to N. Italy. Romans adopted their alphabet and began to use the arch in their architecture.
religion
Religion
  • Romans borrowed religious ideas from Greeks.
  • They changed the names of Greek gods and used Etruscan rituals to win favor from the gods.
2 etruscan influence
2. Etruscan influence
  • 600 B.C. an Etruscan became King.
  • Under this King Rome grew to a city almost 500 square miles.
  • The Valley below Paletine Hill was drained and would later become the Forum.
  • The King ordered the first temples and public buildings built.
  • Adopted their alphabet, the use of the arch, and religious ideas.
roman republic
Roman Republic
  • 509 B.C. aristocrats overthrew the Etruscan King and vowed to put to death anyone who tried to become king again.
  • They established a Republic in place of the monarchy.
    • Form of government where power rests in the hands of the people, who have the right to select their own leaders.
    • Only free-born males allowed the right to vote.
3 balance of power
3. Balance of Power
  • During the days of the early Republic there was fighting over power between the Patricians and Plebeians.
    • Patricians: aristocratic landowners that held most of the power. They believed they inherited the right to govern.
    • Plebeians: common farmers, merchants and artisans who made up most of the population. They were not allowed to hold the highest government offices but were eventually allowed to form tribunes.
      • Tribunes help to protect the rights of the people.
4 twelve tables
4. Twelve Tables
  • 451 B.C. a group of 10 officials began writing down the Roman laws to prevent the Patricians from interpreting them to suit their own needs.
new type of rule
New Type of Rule
  • Rome had 2 consuls put in place to rule.
    • Could only hold office for 1 year and could not be elected again for 10 years.
    • Each had the power to veto the other’s decision
senate
Senate

Senate House

  • The aristocratic branch.
  • 300 Members (1st aristocrats then later plebeians)
  • Performed legislative and administrative functions.
  • Provided stability for the government because members held their position for life.
dictator
Dictator
  • Leader with absolute power.
  • In times of crisis the Senate had the power to appoint a dictator to rule.
roman legions
Roman Legions
  • All Roman citizens were required to serve in the army.
  • Legions: large military units made up of 5,000 armed foot soldiers that could work together as one unit or separately as needed.
5 rise and fall of rome
5.Rise and Fall of Rome
  • By the 4th century Rome dominated the Italian Peninsula.
  • In 390 B.C. the Gauls invaded and sacked Rome.
  • To reestablish control the Romans rebuilt the city and subdued one rival after another until all were gone.
  • By 265 B.C Rome controlled all of Italy but the Po River Valley.
6 punic wars
6. Punic Wars
  • Began in 264 B.C. between Carthage and Rome.
  • Lasted from 264-146 B.C.
  • 1st war: was fought for control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean.
punic wars cont
Punic Wars cont.
  • 2nd war: began in 218 B.C.
  • Carthaginian mastermind was Hannibal
    • Crossed the Alps into France with 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry and 60 elephants.
    • Most died in the trek across the Alps.
    • Fought up and down the Italian Peninsula for 10 years.
7 second punic war
7. Second Punic War
  • The Roman general Scipio was the first to figure out a way to stop Hannibal.
  • He attacked Carthage and forced Hannibal to go home to protect the city.
8 3 rd punic war
8. 3rdPunic War
  • 146 B.C. Rome set fire to Carthage and sold all its residents into slavery.
  • The territory was made into a province of Africa.
  • Because Rome won the Punic wars they controlled all of the western Mediterranean.
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