The human body
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The Human Body. Unit 2 Support System. Anatomy and Physiology. Anatomy : The study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other. (What the body is) Physiology : The study of the functions of specific body parts and systems. ( How the body works).

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The Human Body

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The human body

The Human Body

Unit 2 Support System


Anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

  • Anatomy: The study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other. (What the body is)

  • Physiology: The study of the functions of specific body parts and systems. (How the body works)


Levels of structural organization

Levels of structural organization

  • Chemical - all atoms and molecules essential for maintaining life

  • Cellular - cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. Each cell type has a unique structure and function.

  • Tissue - groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.

    • Four types of tissues in the body:

      • epithelial : covering or lining.

      • muscle : contracts to provide movement.

      • connective : provides support and structure.

      • nervous – transmits impulses.

  • Organ - a structure that is composed of two or more different types of tissue. Each has a specific function, and has a recognizable shape.

  • System - several related organs that have a common function.

  • Organism- one living individual.


Major systems of the body

Major Systems of the Body

  • Integumentary system - skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands.

  • Skeletal system - all the bones and joints of the body.

  • Muscular system - specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue and tendon. Other types of muscle tissues are smooth and cardiac which are found in other body systems.

  • Nervous system - brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as the eye and ear.

  • Endocrine system - hormone-producing glands such as the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, and pancreas.

  • Cardiovascular system - blood, heart, and blood vessels.


Major systems of the body1

Major Systems of the Body

  • Lymphatic and immune systems - lymph, lymphatic vessels, and structures or organs containing lymphatic tissue, such as the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and tonsils.

  • Respiratory system - lungs and the associated passageways leading into and out of them.

  • Digestive system - a long tube called the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

  • Urinary system - organs such as the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra that produce, store, and eliminate urine.

  • Reproductive system – Ovaries, testes, uterine tubes, vas deferns. Organs that produce, transport and store reproductive cells.


Anatomical position

Anatomical Position

  • Description of any region or part of the body assume that the body in the anatomical position.

  • The subject stands in an upright position facing the observer, with feet flat on the floor, arms placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands turned forward.


Directional terms

Directional Terms

  • Superior: Towards head or the upper part of a structure.

  • Inferior: Away from the head or lower part of a structure.

  • Medial: near the midline of the body or to the side.

  • Lateral: Farther from the midline of the body or to the side.

  • Intermediate: Between two structures.


Directional terms1

Directional Terms

  • Anterior: Nearer to or at the front of the body

  • Posterior: Nearer to the rear or the back of the body.

  • Proximal: Nearer to the attachment of an extremity (limb)

  • Distal: Farther from the attachment of an extremity (limb)

  • Superficial: Towards or on the surface of the body.

  • Deep: Away from the surface of the body.


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