Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt
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Risk Management & Financial Loss Exposure Handout – Brigham and Ehrhardt. Lecture Objectives. Risk management and stock value maximization. Derivative securities. Fundamentals of risk management. Using derivatives to reduce interest rate risk.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Risk Management & Financial Loss ExposureHandout – Brigham and Ehrhardt


Lecture objectives

Lecture Objectives

  • Risk management and stock value maximization.

  • Derivative securities.

  • Fundamentals of risk management.

  • Using derivatives to reduce interest rate risk.


Do shareholders care about volatile cash flows

Do shareholders care about volatile cash flows?

  • If volatility in cash flows is not caused by systematic risk, then shareholders can eliminate the risk of volatile cash flows by diversifying their portfolios.

  • shareholders might be able to reduce impact of volatile cash flows by using risk management techniques in their own portfolios.


How can risk management increase the value of a corporation

How can risk management increase the value of a corporation?

Risk management allows firms to:

  • Have greater debt capacity, which has a larger tax shield of interest payments.

  • Implement the optimal capital budget without having to raise external equity in years that would have had low cash flow due to volatility.

(More...)


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Risk management allows firms to:

  • Avoid costs of financial distress.

    • Weakened relationships with suppliers.

    • Loss of potential customers.

    • Distractions to managers.

  • Utilize comparative advantage in hedging relative to hedging ability of investors.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Risk management allows firms to:

  • Reduce borrowing costs by using interest rate swaps.

    Example: Two firms with different credit ratings, Hi and Lo:

    Hi can borrow fixed at 11% and floating at LIBOR + 1%.

    Lo can borrow fixed at 11.4% and floating at LIBOR + 1.5%.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Hi wants fixed rate, but it will issue floating and “swap” with Lo. Lo wants floating rate, but it will issue fixed and swap with Hi. Lo also makes “side payment” of 0.45% to Hi.

CF to lender-(LIBOR+1%)-11.40%

CF Hi to Lo-11.40%+11.40%

CF Lo to Hi+(LIBOR+1%)-(LIBOR+1%)

CF Lo to Hi +0.45% -0.45%

Net CF-10.95%-(LIBOR+1.45%)

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Risk management allows firms to:

  • Minimize negative tax effects due to convexity in tax code.

    Example: EBT of RM50K in Years 1 and 2, total EBT of RM100K,

    Tax = RM7.5K each year, total tax of RM15.

    EBT of RM0K in Year 1 and RM100K in Year 2,

    Tax = RM0K in Year 1 and RM22.5K in Year 2.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

What is corporate risk management?

Corporate risk management is the management of unpredictable events that would have adverse consequences for the firm.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Definitions of Different Types of Risk

  • Speculative risks: Those that offer the chance of a gain as well as a loss.

  • Pure risks: Those that offer only the prospect of a loss.

  • Demand risks: Those associated with the demand for a firm’s products or services.

  • Input risks: Those associated with a firm’s input costs.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

  • Financial risks: Those that result from financial transactions.

  • Property risks: Those associated with loss of a firm’s productive assets.

  • Personnel risk: Risks that result from human actions.

  • Environmental risk: Risk associated with polluting the environment.

  • Liability risks: Connected with product, service, or employee liability.

  • Insurable risks: Those which typically can be covered by insurance.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

What are the three steps of

corporate risk management?

Step 1.Identify the risks faced by the firm.

Step 2.Measure the potential impact of the identified risks.

Step 3.Decide how each relevant risk should be dealt with.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

What are some actions that

companies can take to minimize

or reduce risk exposures?

  • Transfer risk to an insurance company by paying periodic premiums.

  • Transfer functions which produce risk to third parties.

  • Purchase derivatives contracts to reduce input and financial risks.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

  • Take actions to reduce the probability of occurrence of adverse events.

  • Take actions to reduce the magnitude of the loss associated with adverse events.

  • Avoid the activities that give rise to risk.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

What is a financial risk exposure?

  • Financial risk exposure refers to the risk inherent in the financial markets due to price fluctuations.

  • Example: A firm holds a portfolio of bonds, interest rates rise, and the value of the bonds falls.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Financial Risk Management Concepts

  • Derivative: Security whose value stems or is derived from the value of other assets. Swaps, options, and futures are used to manage financial risk exposures.

  • Futures: Contracts which call for the purchase or sale of a financial (or real) asset at some future date, but at a price determined today. Futures (and other derivatives) can be used either as highly leveraged speculations or to hedge and thus reduce risk.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

  • Hedging: Generally conducted where a price change could negatively affect a firm’s profits.

    • Long hedge: Involves the purchase of a futures contract to guard against a price increase.

    • Short hedge: Involves the sale of a futures contract to protect against a price decline in commodities or financial securities.

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Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

  • Swaps: Involve the exchange of cash payment obligations between two parties, usually because each party prefers the terms of the other’s debt contract. Swaps can reduce each party’s financial risk.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

How can commodity futures markets

be used to reduce input price risk?

The purchase of a commodity futures contract will allow a firm to make a future purchase of the input at today’s price, even if the market price on the item has risen substantially in the interim.


Risk management insurance and bond portfolio

Risk Management :Insurance and Bond Portfolio

  • Risk identification and measurement

  • Property loss, liability loss, and financial loss exposures

  • Bond portfolio risk management


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

How are risk exposures identified and measured?

  • Large corporations have risk manage-ment personnel which have the responsibility to identify and measure risks facing the firm.

  • Checklists are used to identify risks.

  • Small firms can obtain risk manage-ment services from insurance companies or risk management consulting firms.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Describe (1) “property” loss and

(2) “liability” loss exposures.

  • Property loss exposures: Result from various perils which threaten a firm’s real and personal properties.

    • Physical perils: Natural events

    • Social perils: Related to human actions

    • Economic perils: Stem from external economic events


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

  • Liability loss exposures: Result from penalties imposed when responsi-bilities are not met.

    • Bailee exposure: Risks associated with having temporary possession of another’s property while some service is being performed. (Cleaners ruin your new suit.)

    • Ownership exposure: Risks inherent in the ownership of property. (Customer is injured from fall in store.)


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

  • Business operation exposure: Risks arising from business practices or operations. (Airline sued following crash.)

  • Professional liability exposure: Stems from the risks inherent in professions requiring advanced training and licensing. (Doctor sued when patient dies, or accounting firm sued for not detecting overstated profits.)


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

What actions can companies taketo reduce property andliability exposures?

  • Both property and liability exposures can be accommodated by either self-insurance or passing the risk on to an insurance company.

  • The more risk passed on to an insurer, the higher the cost of the policy. Insurers like high deductibles, both to lower their losses and to reduce moral hazard.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

How can diversification reduce business risk?

  • By appropriately spreading business risk over several activities or operations, the firm can significantly reduce the impact of a single random event on corporate performance.

  • Examples: Geographic and product diversification.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

What is a financial risk exposure?

  • Financial risk exposure refers to the risk inherent in the financial markets due to price fluctuations.

  • Example: A firm holds a portfolio of bonds, interest rates rise, and the value of the bonds falls.


Risk management financial loss exposure handout brigham and ehrhardt

Financial risk management concepts:

  • Duration: Average time to bondholders' receipt of cash flows, including interest and principal repayment. Duration is used to help assess interest rate and reinvestment rate risks.

  • Immunization: Process of selecting durations for bonds in a portfolio such that gains or losses from reinvestment exactly match gains or losses from price changes.


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