Factors involved in selecting a propulsion system for your lng shipping project
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Factors involved in selecting a propulsion system for your LNG shipping project. Presentation by Ian Harper, Wavespec to LNG Shipping 2005 London, 27 th October 2005. Contents. What has changed recently? Should you burn gas? What solutions are available and which are realistic?

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Factors involved in selecting a propulsion system for your lng shipping project

Factors involved in selecting a propulsion system for your LNG shipping project

Presentation by Ian Harper, Wavespec

to LNG Shipping 2005

London, 27th October 2005


Contents

Contents

  • What has changed recently?

  • Should you burn gas?

  • What solutions are available and which are realistic?

  • Evaluating economic factors

  • Evaluating the technical risks

  • Impact of choice on safety, environment and training

  • Solutions for the future


First diesel engined lng carrier

First Diesel Engined LNG Carrier


Changing factors in propulsion

Changing Factors in Propulsion

  • The old LNG carrier world was simple!

  • Recent surge in demand for natural gas and LNG in Europe and USA

  • New trading patterns are developing

  • Massive increase in LNG fleet numbers

  • More supply sources and destinations

  • Bigger ships and new trade routes


Should you burn gas

Should You Burn Gas?

  • Gas is “clean” and “green”?

  • Lower emissions of carbon, SOx and NOx

  • BOG needs to be disposed of or recycled

  • All non-steam ships need a Gas Combustion Unit (GCU) for backup gas disposal

  • Environmental and safety issues have to be tackled

  • Depends on the value of gas to the project


Alternative propulsion options

Alternative Propulsion Options

  • Conventional Steam Turbine

  • Slow Speed Diesels with Reliquefaction

  • Gas Injection Slow Speed Diesels with Reliq

  • Dual Fuel Diesel Electric

  • Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Electric

  • Hybrids


Traditional steam plant

Traditional Steam Plant


Engine power for lng carriers

Engine Power for LNG Carriers


Slow speed diesel solutions

Slow Speed Diesel Solutions

  • High thermal efficiency

  • Traditional ship propulsion system

  • Same emissions as conventional oil tanker

  • Requires reliquefaction plant and GCU

  • Maintenance only possible in port with twin screw

  • LPG ships have similar machinery

  • Benefit for crew sourcing


Twin screw slow speed diesels

Twin Screw Slow Speed Diesels


Man b w 7s50me c

MAN B&W 7S50ME-C


Gas injection slow speed diesel

Gas Injection Slow Speed Diesel


Dual fuel diesel solutions

Dual Fuel Diesel Solutions

  • Direct replacement for the steam boiler and turbine system

  • Higher efficiency than steam

  • Can only burn HFO or MDO or Gas

  • Flexibility of operation with electric drives

  • Maintenance possible at sea and in port


Dual fuel diesel direct drive

Dual Fuel Diesel – Direct Drive


Dual fuel diesel electric dfde

Dual Fuel Diesel Electric (DFDE)


Wartsila 6l50df engine

Wartsila 6L50DF Engine


Gaz de france energy on trials the world s first dual fuel diesel propelled lngc

Gaz de France Energy on trialsthe world’s first dual fuel diesel propelled LNGC


Gas turbine solutions

Gas Turbine Solutions

  • Simple Cycle – not efficient but very small

  • Combined Cycle – aero derivative and industrial

  • Waste heat recovery and steam turbo-alternator

  • R-R, GE and Siemens have differing solutions

  • Different but share benefits and challenges

  • Potential for extra cargo is yet unproven

  • Very low maintenance on board……but!

  • Only feasible if burning gas


Coges plant rolls royce

COGES Plant Rolls-Royce


Ge lm2500 marine gas turbine

GE LM2500+ Marine Gas Turbine


Combined cycle gas turbines

Combined Cycle Gas Turbines

Siemens


Hybrid solution mhi

Hybrid Solution MHI

  • Combines diesel engines and steam turbines

  • Direct drive propeller with Contra Rotating Pod

  • Reliquefaction plant for base BOG

  • Excess BOG produces steam for electricity

MER


Economic factors

Economic Factors

  • Choice is dependent on fuel costs

  • The relationship between HFO and LNG costs is critical in determining choice

  • Maintenance costs vary

  • Operators require longer docking cycles

  • Crew for diesels may be easier to find and train

  • Will the trade require a ship to heel out cargo?

  • Different projects will make different choices


Technical risks

Technical Risks

  • Steam propelled LNG ships are a known factor

  • Alternatives involve levels of perceived risk

  • Technical risks can be qualified

  • Classification societies are assessing options

  • New entrants cannot easily benchmark risks

  • Project risks are project specific

  • Industry should remain self regulating – IMO and SIGTTO forums


Environmental factors

Environmental Factors

  • Over 95% of World Trade is carried in ships

  • The vast majority of these ships are propelled by slow speed diesel engines – e.g. container ships and oil tankers

  • The efficiency of these shipping operations means that CO2 emissions per tonne/km are very low

  • NOx and SOx emissions are legislated by MARPOL Annex VI and Flag States (e.g. EU)

  • The current limits will be reduced with time


Annual exhaust emissions

Annual Exhaust Emissions

MAN B&W


Annual exhaust emissions1

Annual Exhaust Emissions

Wartsila


Solutions for the future

Solutions for the Future

  • Qatar’s major projects driving size up and costs down

  • Trading and chartering options require flexibility in shipping operations

  • Do we still expect to see new technology introduced, or an industry standard emerge? If so, which one?

  • Environmental factors will have to be addressed


2005 is the watershed year

2005 is the Watershed Year

  • There are 136 LNG ships on order

  • Over 30% of these have diesel propulsion systems

  • 20 are twin screw SSD with reliquefaction

  • Approx 25 are single screw DFDE

  • About 40 LNG ships ordered in 2005, but less than 20% have conventional steam plants


Factors involved in selecting a propulsion system for your lng shipping project

Thank you for your kind attentionIan Harper


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