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Types of Wetlands Problems Solutions Shoreline Protection Landscape Design Natives Invasive Plants Wetland Plants -Shore -Salt -Flood Maintenance. On the Waterfront. Author: Rebecca McNair Edited by: Allison Steele.

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on the waterfront

Types of Wetlands

Problems

Solutions

Shoreline Protection

Landscape Design

Natives

Invasive Plants

Wetland Plants

-Shore

-Salt

-Flood

Maintenance

On the Waterfront

Author: Rebecca McNair

Edited by: Allison Steele

slide2
Florida is blessed with a large variety of aquatic resources

2,276 miles tidal shoreline

663 miles of coastal beaches

Over 7,700 freshwater lakes

Living on the waterfront is a privilege and a responsibility

types of wetlands
Types of Wetlands
  • Fresh
    • Lakes, rivers, streams
    • Depressional wetlands
    • Retention ponds
    • Ditches
  • Salt /Brackish
    • Coastal
    • Intercoastal
    • Salt marsh
environmental concerns
Environmental Concerns
  • Shoreline over-development
  • Aquatic weeds
  • Decline in fish & aquatic organisms
  • Loss of habitat
  • Water clarity
  • Water quality
    • According to the EPA, nutrient loading is the leading cause of impairment to Florida’s waterways
be florida friendly
Be Florida-Friendly

Regardless of the type of waterfront property you own, you can help preserve Florida’s natural resources through:

  • Shoreline Protection
  • Landscape Design
  • Proper Maintenance
protect the shoreline
Protect the Shoreline
  • Vegetated slopes
    • Buffer wave action
    • Absorb nutrients
    • Prevent erosion
    • Attract wildlife
protect the shoreline1
Protect the Shoreline
  • Limestone
    • Buffers wave action
    • Prevents erosion
    • Provides shelter for wildlife

Native limestone placed along the shoreline offers a home to local wildlife.

protect the shoreline2
Protect the Shoreline
  • Shade trees
    • Reduce soil compaction by intercepting rainfall
    • Prevent erosion
    • Maintain water temperature

Thermal pollution (hot water) threatens the health of fish and other aquatic wildlife.

waterfront restrictions
Waterfront Restrictions
  • Permit required to:
    • Alter shoreline protection structures (seawalls)
    • Prune or remove native vegetation

Seek expert advice to modify seawalls!

slide12

A carefully designed Florida Yard can be beautiful and environmentally friendly:

  • Requiring little inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and water
  • Filtering impurities from water before it reaches water bodies
select plants based on site conditions
Select plants based on site conditions:
  • Acid  alkaline- (test your soil’s pH)
  • Dry  moist
  • Full sun  shade
  • Heat  cold
  • Space
  • Obstructions
  • Salt
reduce plant maintenance needs by selecting appropriate plant material
Reduce plant maintenance needs by selecting appropriate plant material…
  • Choose low-maintenance & native plants with:
    • Few pest problems
    • Low nutrient and water requirements
    • Low weediness potential
    • Flood tolerance

Coral Porterweed Stachytarpheta speciosa

and planting in the right place
…and planting in the right place
  • Create a buffer of low-maintenance plants between the lawn and shore or seawall to absorb nutrients

Apply no fertilizers or pesticides past the buffer zone

definitions
Definitions
  • Native-a species occurring naturally in an environment or region
  • Endemic- Native to and restricted to a particular geographic region
  • Exotic—a species introduced to an area
  • Invasive exotic—an exotic that, not only has naturalized, but is expanding on its own
  • Not all exotic plants are invasive!
appropriate shoreline plants
Appropriate Shoreline Plants

The extensive root systems of Sea Oat holds sand particles in place.

Sea Oat Uniola paniculata

(USDA Zone 7-11)

salt tolerant plants
Salt Tolerant Plants

Blackrush (USDA Zone 7-11)Juncus roemerianus

(USDA Zone 10B-11)

Black MangroveAvicennia germinans

Sawgrass (USDA Zone 8-11)Cladium jamaicense

salt tolerant plants1
Salt Tolerant Plants

Sea Oxeye Daisy(USDA Zone 10A-11)Borrichia frutescens

Cordgrass(USDA Zone 8-11)Spartina spp.

Seashore Paspalum(USDA Zone 8) Paspalum vaginatum (Swartz)

flood tolerant plants
Flood Tolerant Plants

Softstem Bullrush(USDA Zone 7-10) Scirpus tabernaemontani

Wild Rice(USDA Zone 8-11)Zizaniopsis milacea

Pickerelweed (USDA Zone 7-11)Pontederia cordata

flood tolerant trees
Flood Tolerant Trees

Pond Apple (USDA Zone 9b-11)Annona glabra

Paurotis Palm (USDA Zone 9b-11)Acoelorrhaphe wrightii

Cypress (USDA Zone 7-10B)Taxodium spp.

invasive exotics
Invasive Exotics
  • Many infamous invasive exotics are found in wetlands
  • Invasive exotics that are altering native plant communities by:
    • changing soil chemistry, plant community structure and ecological function
    • displacing native species
    • hybridizing with natives

Hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata

some invasive exotics

Australian Pine

Casuarina spp.

Some Invasive Exotics

Brazilian Pepper Schinus terebinthifolius

Melaleuca Melaleuca quinquenervia

slide24
Remove invasive exotics by hand to protect native plants

Chinese TallowSapium sebiferum

Water LettucePistia stratioites

Water HyacinthEichhornia crassipes

slide25

A low maintenance approach to landscaping can save time, money and precious natural resources. This may be achieved through proper:

  • Watering
  • Fertilizing
  • Pest Management
  • Mowing, pruning, raking
  • Composting
  • Mulching
fertilize appropriately
Fertilize Appropriately

Excess fertilizers or fertilizers applied improperly may run off our yards into waterways or leach into groundwater.

  • Follow the printed instructions carefully
  • Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides before a heavy rainstorm
keep rain and sprinkler water onsite to prevent runoff from occurring
Keep rain and sprinkler water onsite to prevent runoff from occurring.
  • Use porous surfaces for walkways, patios and driveways
  • Use berms, swales and terracing
  • Direct downspouts toward beds or lawn
slide28
Remove trash

Clean up oil spills and leaks with cat litter

Pick up after pets

Sweep grass clippings and soil back onto lawns

Because water can wash off our yards, it is important to reduce the amount of pollutants on our property.

slide29
Landscapes bordering surface waters need to be maintained with special sensitivity to the environment.
  • Establish a 10-30 ft “no fertilizer, no pesticide” zone along shoreline
lawn care
Lawn Care
  • Avoid mowing grasses along the shoreline
  • Keep grass clippings out of stormwater drainage systems
  • Mow lawns at the highest recommended height to encourage a deeper, more drought tolerant root system
further reading http edis ifas ufl edu
Further Readinghttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu

FE 207: Florida’s Water: Supply, Use and Public Policy

WEC 4: Introduction to Aquascaping

SL 143: How Contaminants Reach Groundwater

FRE 256: Handbook of Florida’s Water Regulations: Activities in Wetlands

thanks for your attention
Thanks for your attention!

The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions:

FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF

Agriculture Education and Communication Department

Environmental Horticulture Department

Entomology and Nematology Department

Soil and Water Sciences Department

Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties

Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence

The Center For Wetlands, UF

United States Department of Agriculture

FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry

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