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Chemistry – PSSA Review – Presentation. Chemistry – PSSA Review. S11.C.1 – Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy. Atoms and subatomic particles. PSSA Eligible Content S11.C.1.1.1. Matter. Anything that has mass and takes up space is known as MATTER .

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Chemistry pssa review presentation

Chemistry – PSSA Review – Presentation


Chemistry pssa review

Chemistry – PSSA Review

S11.C.1 – Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy


Atoms and subatomic particles

Atoms and subatomic particles

PSSA Eligible Content

S11.C.1.1.1


Matter

Matter

  • Anything that has mass and takes up space is known as MATTER.

  • There are two kinds of matter:

    • Pure Substances – Cannot be broken down

      • Elements

        • Examples would include: Fe, Ni, Zn, Hg, Pb, Na, O, He

      • Compounds

        • Examples would include: Water, Carbon dioxide, Sugar

    • Mixtures – Blend of two or more simpler substances

      • Heterogeneous Mixture - each substance retains own properties

        • Examples: Pepperoni Pizza, Chocolate Chip Cookies

      • Homogenous Mixture – uniform composition

        • Examples: Air, Salt water


Parts of the atom

Parts of the Atom

  • ATOM – the basic building block of matter

    • Composed of smaller subatomic particles:


Parts of the atom1

Parts of the Atom

  • NUCLEUS – Center of atom; contains protons and neutrons

  • ELECTRON CLOUD – Space outside of nucleus; Contain electrons

    • Organized into different energy levels at different distances from the nucleus. Most atoms have more than one energy level.


Structure of the atom

Structure of the Atom

  • ATOMIC NUMBER – The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; No two atoms have the same atomic number!

  • MASS NUMBER – The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

  • ISOTOPES – Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons; Same atomic number but different mass numbers!!


Basic layout students do not have this slide

Basic Layout (students do not have this slide)

7 rows = “periods”

18 columns = “groups”


Chemistry pssa review presentation

Ions

  • NEUTRAL ATOM – Number of electrons = number of protons (positive = negative)

    • Valence Electrons – electrons located in the outermost energy level

  • ION – Atom that has a charge (has either lost or gained electrons during a reaction)

    • Cation – Positively charged ion (lost electron(s))

    • Anion – Negatively charged ion (gained electron(s))


Particle structure and physical properties

Particle Structure and Physical Properties

S11.C.1.1.2


States of matter

States of Matter


Properties of matter

Properties of Matter

  • Physical

    • characteristics of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.

      • Ex: Color, texture, phase, malleability, ductility, density, melting point, boiling point

  • Chemical

    • Characteristics of matter that describe how substances change in chemical composition.

      • Ex: flammability, corrosion, decomposition, digestion, respiration


Mass volume density

Mass, Volume, Density

  • Mass

    • Amount of matter present in a sample of a substance

    • Metric base unit = Gram, g

  • Volume

    • Amount of space occupied by a substance

    • Metric base unit = Liter, L

  • Density

    • Ratio of mass to volume of a substance

    • D = mass

      volume


Molecular shapes

Molecular Shapes

  • Nonpolar

    • Even distribution of electrical charge

  • Polar

    • Uneven distribution of electrical charge

    • Dipole (d+, d-)


Effects of molecular shape

Effects of Molecular Shape

  • Nonpolar

    • Weak attractive forces

    • Low melting and boiling points

  • Polar

    • Strong attractive forces

    • High melting and boiling points


Chemical bonding and chemical properties

Chemical Bonding and Chemical Properties

S11.C.1.1.3


Key ideas

Key Ideas

  • COMPOUND – Two or more elements combine chemically

    • Important characteristics:

      • Have definite composition

      • Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means

      • Properties of the compound differ from the properties of the individual elements making it up!


Electrons and bonding

Electrons and Bonding

  • Electrons

    • Negatively charged particles

    • Located in energy levels

      • Those closest to the nucleus have the smallest amount of energy

  • ELECTRON CONFIGURATION – Arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom

    • Each energy level can hold a specific amount of electrons:


Electrons and bonding1

Electrons and bonding

  • Valence electrons are lost, gained, or shared when atoms react with each other to form bonds

  • CHEMICAL BONDS – forces that hold atoms together

    • Three types:

      • IONIC BONDS

      • COVALENT BONDS

      • METALLIC BONDS


Ionic bonds

Ionic Bonds

  • IONIC BOND – Formed from transfer of electrons from a positively charged ion to a negatively charged ion

    • OCTET – Atoms seek to have 8 electrons in their outer most level


Covalent bonds

Covalent Bonds

  • COVALENT BOND – Formed when two atoms share electrons

    • OCTET – Seek to have 8 electrons in outer most level

    • MOLECULE – Structure formed through covalent bonding

    • LEWIS STRUCTURE – Visually shows covalent bonding and how electrons are shared


Metallic bonding

Metallic Bonding

  • METALLIC BOND – Formed when two metals combine

    • Electron Sea – Group of loosely bound electrons that are shared by all metal cations (+ charged ions)


The periodic table

The Periodic Table

S11.C.1.1.4


Basic layout

Basic Layout

7 rows = “periods”

18 columns = “groups”


Properties of elements

Properties of Elements

  • Metals

    • Solid (except Hg), lustrous, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity, tend to lose electrons in chemical reactions

    • On the left of the steps (except Hydrogen)

  • Nonmetals

    • Most are gases, dull color or colorless, brittle when in the solid phase, poor conductors of heat and electricity, tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions

    • On the right of the steps

  • Metalloids

    • Blended properties of metals and nonmetals

    • On the steps


Special groups

Special Groups

Group 1 = Alkali Metals Group 17 = Halogens

Group 2 = Alkaline Earth Metals Group 18 = Noble Gases

Groups 3-12 = Transition Metals


Properties of elements slide 2

Properties of Elements (Slide 2)

  • Alkali Metals

    • React vigorously with nonmetals and water

    • Require special storage

    • Have 1 valence electron; form +1 ions

  • Alkaline Earth Metals

    • Not as reactive as group 1 metals

    • Have 2 valence electron; form +2 ions

  • Transition Metals

    • Hard solids with high melting points

    • Form colorful ions of varying charge


Chemistry pssa review presentation

  • Halogens

    • Most reactive nonmetals

    • 7 valence electrons, -1 ions

  • Noble Gases

    • Least reactive of all elements

    • 8 valence electrons = “Octet”


Gases and gas laws

Gases and gas laws

S11.C.1.1.5


Kinetic molecular theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory

GASES:

  • No definite shape

  • No definite volume

  • Molecules are very fart apart

  • Elastic collisions

  • Weak intermolecular attraction

  • Greatly affected by changes in :

    • Temperature – average kinetic energy of molecules; measured in KELVIN

    • Pressure – force exerted per unit area; measured in atm, mmHg, kPa


Charles law

Charles Law

  • V1 = V2

    T1 T2

  • T and V are directly proportional.


Boyle s law

Boyle’s Law

  • P1V1 = P2V2

  • P and V are inversely proportional


Ideal gas law

Ideal Gas Law

Relates P,V, and T to the number of moles (n) of gas

R = 0.08206 Latm/molK

n = number of moles = mass/molar mass


Density of gases

Density of Gases

Affected by changes in volume

d = mass

volume

If V increases, density will decrease.

If V decreases, density will increase.


Reaction rates

Reaction Rates

S11.C.1.1.6


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical Reaction – One or more substance react to produce new, different substances

    • Reactants  Products

  • 4 types of chemical reactions:

    • Synthesis

    • Decomposition

    • Single Replacement

    • Double Replacement


  • Summary of reactions

    Summary of Reactions

    ** - Activity Series Required!!


    Rate of reaction

    Rate of Reaction

    • RATE OF REACTION – How fast a reaction takes place

      • Affected by:

        • Concentration

        • Pressure

        • Temperature

        • Catalyst

          • CATALYST – Substance that speeds up a reaction, but it itself is not consumed


    Factors affecting rates of reaction

    Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction


    Factors affecting rates of reaction1

    Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction

    • Temperature – Measure of average kinetic energy in a substance

      • Increase temperature = Increased rate of reaction

    • Pressure – Force exerted on a unit area of surface

      • Little affect on solids, liquids

      • Increase Pressure = Increased rate of reaction

    • Concentration – Amount of molecules present per unit volume

      • Increased Concentration = Increased rate of reaction

    • Catalyst – Substance that increases rate without being permanently changed or used up


    Factors affecting rates of reaction2

    Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction

    • EQUILIBRIUM – Stable condition in which opposing forces cancel out

    • REVERSIBLE REACTION – Reactions that can occur in both the forward and reverse directions

    • LeChatlier’s Principle – Chemical reactions will “work” to relieve changes made to it and get (shift) back into equilibrium

      • Add more of a substance – shift away from added

      • Remove substance – shift towards removed

      • Decrease volume – shift toward side with fewer gas


    Chemistry pssa review1

    Chemistry – PSSA Review

    S11.C.2 – Energy Sources and Transformation of Energy, or Conversion of Energy


    Energy changes in chemical reactions

    Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions

    S11.C.2.1.2


    Chemical reactions energy diagrams

    Chemical Reactions -Energy Diagrams

    Endothermic Reactions – Require energy (energy is a reactant)

    Products are at a HIGHER energy than the reactants


    Chemistry pssa review presentation

    Exothermic Reactions – Release energy (energy is a product)

    Products are at a LOWER energy than the reactants


    Bond changes

    BOND CHANGES

    • Breaking bonds is always an ENDOTHERMIC process

    • Making bonds is always an EXOTHERMIC process


    Physical changes

    Physical Changes

    • Change of STATE

    Heating Curve

    Cooling Curve


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