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Chemistry – PSSA Review – Presentation. Chemistry – PSSA Review. S11.C.1 – Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy. Atoms and subatomic particles. PSSA Eligible Content S11.C.1.1.1. Matter. Anything that has mass and takes up space is known as MATTER .

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chemistry pssa review

Chemistry – PSSA Review

S11.C.1 – Structure, Properties, and Interaction of Matter and Energy

atoms and subatomic particles

Atoms and subatomic particles

PSSA Eligible Content

S11.C.1.1.1

matter
Matter
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space is known as MATTER.
  • There are two kinds of matter:
    • Pure Substances – Cannot be broken down
      • Elements
        • Examples would include: Fe, Ni, Zn, Hg, Pb, Na, O, He
      • Compounds
        • Examples would include: Water, Carbon dioxide, Sugar
    • Mixtures – Blend of two or more simpler substances
      • Heterogeneous Mixture - each substance retains own properties
        • Examples: Pepperoni Pizza, Chocolate Chip Cookies
      • Homogenous Mixture – uniform composition
        • Examples: Air, Salt water
parts of the atom
Parts of the Atom
  • ATOM – the basic building block of matter
    • Composed of smaller subatomic particles:
parts of the atom1
Parts of the Atom
  • NUCLEUS – Center of atom; contains protons and neutrons
  • ELECTRON CLOUD – Space outside of nucleus; Contain electrons
    • Organized into different energy levels at different distances from the nucleus. Most atoms have more than one energy level.
structure of the atom
Structure of the Atom
  • ATOMIC NUMBER – The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; No two atoms have the same atomic number!
  • MASS NUMBER – The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  • ISOTOPES – Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons; Same atomic number but different mass numbers!!
basic layout students do not have this slide
Basic Layout (students do not have this slide)

7 rows = “periods”

18 columns = “groups”

slide9
Ions
  • NEUTRAL ATOM – Number of electrons = number of protons (positive = negative)
    • Valence Electrons – electrons located in the outermost energy level
  • ION – Atom that has a charge (has either lost or gained electrons during a reaction)
    • Cation – Positively charged ion (lost electron(s))
    • Anion – Negatively charged ion (gained electron(s))
properties of matter
Properties of Matter
  • Physical
    • characteristics of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.
      • Ex: Color, texture, phase, malleability, ductility, density, melting point, boiling point
  • Chemical
    • Characteristics of matter that describe how substances change in chemical composition.
      • Ex: flammability, corrosion, decomposition, digestion, respiration
mass volume density
Mass, Volume, Density
  • Mass
    • Amount of matter present in a sample of a substance
    • Metric base unit = Gram, g
  • Volume
    • Amount of space occupied by a substance
    • Metric base unit = Liter, L
  • Density
    • Ratio of mass to volume of a substance
    • D = mass

volume

molecular shapes
Molecular Shapes
  • Nonpolar
    • Even distribution of electrical charge
  • Polar
    • Uneven distribution of electrical charge
    • Dipole (d+, d-)
effects of molecular shape
Effects of Molecular Shape
  • Nonpolar
    • Weak attractive forces
    • Low melting and boiling points
  • Polar
    • Strong attractive forces
    • High melting and boiling points
key ideas
Key Ideas
  • COMPOUND – Two or more elements combine chemically
    • Important characteristics:
      • Have definite composition
      • Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
      • Properties of the compound differ from the properties of the individual elements making it up!
electrons and bonding
Electrons and Bonding
  • Electrons
    • Negatively charged particles
    • Located in energy levels
      • Those closest to the nucleus have the smallest amount of energy
  • ELECTRON CONFIGURATION – Arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom
    • Each energy level can hold a specific amount of electrons:
electrons and bonding1
Electrons and bonding
  • Valence electrons are lost, gained, or shared when atoms react with each other to form bonds
  • CHEMICAL BONDS – forces that hold atoms together
    • Three types:
      • IONIC BONDS
      • COVALENT BONDS
      • METALLIC BONDS
ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds
  • IONIC BOND – Formed from transfer of electrons from a positively charged ion to a negatively charged ion
    • OCTET – Atoms seek to have 8 electrons in their outer most level
covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • COVALENT BOND – Formed when two atoms share electrons
    • OCTET – Seek to have 8 electrons in outer most level
    • MOLECULE – Structure formed through covalent bonding
    • LEWIS STRUCTURE – Visually shows covalent bonding and how electrons are shared
metallic bonding
Metallic Bonding
  • METALLIC BOND – Formed when two metals combine
    • Electron Sea – Group of loosely bound electrons that are shared by all metal cations (+ charged ions)
basic layout
Basic Layout

7 rows = “periods”

18 columns = “groups”

properties of elements
Properties of Elements
  • Metals
    • Solid (except Hg), lustrous, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity, tend to lose electrons in chemical reactions
    • On the left of the steps (except Hydrogen)
  • Nonmetals
    • Most are gases, dull color or colorless, brittle when in the solid phase, poor conductors of heat and electricity, tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions
    • On the right of the steps
  • Metalloids
    • Blended properties of metals and nonmetals
    • On the steps
special groups
Special Groups

Group 1 = Alkali Metals Group 17 = Halogens

Group 2 = Alkaline Earth Metals Group 18 = Noble Gases

Groups 3-12 = Transition Metals

properties of elements slide 2
Properties of Elements (Slide 2)
  • Alkali Metals
    • React vigorously with nonmetals and water
    • Require special storage
    • Have 1 valence electron; form +1 ions
  • Alkaline Earth Metals
    • Not as reactive as group 1 metals
    • Have 2 valence electron; form +2 ions
  • Transition Metals
    • Hard solids with high melting points
    • Form colorful ions of varying charge
slide28

Halogens

    • Most reactive nonmetals
    • 7 valence electrons, -1 ions
  • Noble Gases
    • Least reactive of all elements
    • 8 valence electrons = “Octet”
kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory

GASES:

  • No definite shape
  • No definite volume
  • Molecules are very fart apart
  • Elastic collisions
  • Weak intermolecular attraction
  • Greatly affected by changes in :
    • Temperature – average kinetic energy of molecules; measured in KELVIN
    • Pressure – force exerted per unit area; measured in atm, mmHg, kPa
charles law
Charles Law
  • V1 = V2

T1 T2

  • T and V are directly proportional.
boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • P1V1 = P2V2
  • P and V are inversely proportional
ideal gas law
Ideal Gas Law

Relates P,V, and T to the number of moles (n) of gas

R = 0.08206 Latm/molK

n = number of moles = mass/molar mass

density of gases
Density of Gases

Affected by changes in volume

d = mass

volume

If V increases, density will decrease.

If V decreases, density will increase.

reaction rates

Reaction Rates

S11.C.1.1.6

chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical Reaction – One or more substance react to produce new, different substances
      • Reactants  Products
  • 4 types of chemical reactions:
    • Synthesis
    • Decomposition
    • Single Replacement
    • Double Replacement
summary of reactions
Summary of Reactions

** - Activity Series Required!!

rate of reaction
Rate of Reaction
  • RATE OF REACTION – How fast a reaction takes place
    • Affected by:
      • Concentration
      • Pressure
      • Temperature
      • Catalyst
        • CATALYST – Substance that speeds up a reaction, but it itself is not consumed
factors affecting rates of reaction1
Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction
  • Temperature – Measure of average kinetic energy in a substance
    • Increase temperature = Increased rate of reaction
  • Pressure – Force exerted on a unit area of surface
    • Little affect on solids, liquids
    • Increase Pressure = Increased rate of reaction
  • Concentration – Amount of molecules present per unit volume
    • Increased Concentration = Increased rate of reaction
  • Catalyst – Substance that increases rate without being permanently changed or used up
factors affecting rates of reaction2
Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction
  • EQUILIBRIUM – Stable condition in which opposing forces cancel out
  • REVERSIBLE REACTION – Reactions that can occur in both the forward and reverse directions
  • LeChatlier’s Principle – Chemical reactions will “work” to relieve changes made to it and get (shift) back into equilibrium
    • Add more of a substance – shift away from added
    • Remove substance – shift towards removed
    • Decrease volume – shift toward side with fewer gas
chemistry pssa review1

Chemistry – PSSA Review

S11.C.2 – Energy Sources and Transformation of Energy, or Conversion of Energy

chemical reactions energy diagrams
Chemical Reactions -Energy Diagrams

Endothermic Reactions – Require energy (energy is a reactant)

Products are at a HIGHER energy than the reactants

slide45

Exothermic Reactions – Release energy (energy is a product)

Products are at a LOWER energy than the reactants

bond changes
BOND CHANGES
  • Breaking bonds is always an ENDOTHERMIC process
  • Making bonds is always an EXOTHERMIC process
physical changes
Physical Changes
  • Change of STATE

Heating Curve

Cooling Curve

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