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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Physical Features Section 2: Climate Region Summary. Chapter Menu.

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Splash screen

Splash Screen


Chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Section 1:Physical Features

Section 2:Climate Region

Summary

Chapter Menu


Chapter intro 1

Human-Environment Interaction The region of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica has great variety in landforms and climate. It includes high mountains, low plains, and tropical islands, as well as hot and cold deserts. How might the remoteness of a region make it different from other places?

Chapter Intro 1


Chapter intro 2

Section 1: Physical Features

Physical processes shape Earth’s surface. This region contains an amazing variety of landforms. Australia has mountains as well as vast plains. Most of Oceania’s islands were formed from volcanic activity or from coral, the skeletons of hundreds of millions of small sea creatures. Some islands were formed by the rising and folding of rock on the ocean floor. Antarctica’s mountains are surrounded by glaciers that are many feet thick.

Chapter Intro 2


Chapter intro 21

Section 2: Climate Regions

Places reflect the relationship between humans and the physical environment. The region’s climates vary from tropical to polar. These different climate regions influence patterns of settlement and ways of life.

Chapter Intro 2


Chapter intro end

Chapter Intro-End


Section 1 main idea

Physical processes shape Earth’s surface.

Section 1-Main Idea


Section 1 key terms

Content Vocabulary

outback

coral reef

geyser

high island

low island

atoll

continental island

ice shelf

iceberg

marsupial

Academic Vocabulary

adjacent

accurate

Section 1-Key Terms


Section 1 polling question

A

B

Do you think Antarctica should be mined for its mineral wealth?

A.Yes

B.No

Section 1-Polling Question


Section 1

At Hot Water Beach on the North Island of New Zealand, visitors can create their own hot water spas. Underground springs are heated by regional volcanoes and are pushed toward the surface, where just a little digging will result in a nice pool of 147°F (64°C) mineral water in which to soak your cares away.

Section 1


Section 11

Landforms of the Region

Plate tectonics, erosion, and biological processes have shaped this region’s landforms.

Section 1


Section 12

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica lie almost entirely in the Southern Hemisphere and reach from north of the Equator to the South Pole.

Section 1


Section 13

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Australia, a continent as well as the sixth-largest country in the world, is mostly flat and has low relief, or few differences in the elevations of adjacent areas.

Good farmland is found on the narrow plains in the south and southeast, near the Murray and the Darling Rivers.

Section 1


Section 14

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

The Great Dividing Range is called a mountain chain, but it is more accurately an escarpment.

It stretches along Australia’s eastern coast from the Cape York Peninsula to the Australian island of Tasmania.

Section 1


Section 15

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Australia’s outbackis a vast, flat, and dry area of plains and plateaus with isolated, heavily eroded masses of rock that stand above the lowland.

Off Australia’s northeastern coast lies the Great Barrier Reef. It is the world’s largest coral reef, a structure formed by the skeletons of small sea animals.

Section 1


Section 16

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

New Zealand includes two main islands—North Island and South Island—as well as many smaller islands. The Cook Strait separates the two main islands.

Section 1


Section 17

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

New Zealand lies along a fault line where two tectonic plates meet, so the large central plateau of North Island has active volcanoes as well as geysers,or hot springs that shoot water into the air.

Section 1


Section 18

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Oceania is a grouping of thousands of islands in the Pacific Ocean.

These islands consist of three types: high, low, and continental.

Section 1


Section 19

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

High islands, such as Tahiti and the Fiji Islands, were formed by volcanic activity and have bodies of freshwater, fertile soil, and mountain ranges split by valleys that fan out into coastal plains.

Section 1


Section 110

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Low islands, such as the Marshall Islands, were formed by coral, and are atolls, or low-lying, ring-shaped islands that surround shallow pools of water.

Low islands have little soil.

Section 1


Section 111

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Continental islands, such as New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, were formed by tectonic activity.

Inland from the coast, these islands hold rugged mountains, plateaus, and valleys.

Section 1


Section 112

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

Antarctica lies at Earth’s southern polar region.

The South Pole, the Earth’s southernmost point, and the Transantarctic Mountains are here.

Section 1


Section 113

Landforms of the Region (cont.)

An ice cap, sometimes 2 miles (3 km) thick, covers most of Antarctica’s highlands and plains.

At the coast is an ice shelf, where the ice cap spreads past land into the ocean.

Free-floating icebergsare formed when huge chunks break away from the ice shelves.

Section 1


Section 114

A

B

C

What kind of islands are formed by coral?

A.High islands

B.Low islands

C.Continental islands

Section 1


Section 115

Natural Resources

Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica have many resources, but the islands of Oceania have relatively few.

Section 1


Section 116

Natural Resources (cont.)

Australia mines bauxite, copper, nickel, and gold.

New Zealand has some deposits of gold, coal, and natural gas.

Its rivers and dams supply hydroelectric power, and its hot springs provide geothermal energy.

Section 1


Section 117

Natural Resources (cont.)

Oceania’s larger islands have deposits of oil, gold, nickel, and copper.

Antarctica has coal and iron ore.

Section 1


Section 118

Natural Resources (cont.)

Because the region is mostly isolated islands, some native plants and animals are found nowhere else in the world.

Two are Australia’s kangaroos and Koalas. Both are marsupials, or mammals that carry their young in a pouch.

New Zealand has the kiwi, a flightless bird.

Section 1


Section 119

A

B

C

D

Why have many nations agreed not to mine the mineral wealth in Antarctica?

A.To protect the environment

B.Because it is too costly

C.Because it is too difficult

D.All of the above

Section 1


Section 1 end

Section 1-End


Section 2 main idea

Places reflect the relationship between humans and the physical environment.

Section 2-Main Idea


Section 2 key terms

Content Vocabulary

eucalyptus

pasture

breadfruit

lichen

Academic Vocabulary

distort

duration

sufficient

Section 2-Key Terms


Section 2 polling question

A

B

C

D

Based on climate, which of the following locations would you most like to live?

A.New Zealand

B.An island in Oceania

C.Australia’s outback

D.Antarctica

Section 2-Polling Question


Section 2

Blizzards in Antarctica are different from the type of fierce, blowing snowfalls that occur in other parts of the world. In Antarctica, blizzards are caused by heavy winds swirling up snow that is actually already on the ground.

Section 2


Section 21

Climate of Australia

Australia has several climate regions, but much of the country is dry.

Section 2


Section 22

Climate of Australia (cont.)

About one-third of Australia’s vast interior is desert, and another third is partly dry steppe.

Only the northern, eastern, and southwestern coastal areas receive plentiful rainfall.

Section 2


Section 23

Climate of Australia (cont.)

The northern third of Australia lies in the Tropics and is warm or hot year-round.

The rest of the country lies south of the Tropics and has warm summers and cool winters.

Section 2


Section 24

Climate of Australia (cont.)

Deserts cover vast stretches of the outback.

The deserts of south central Australia receive no more than 8 inches (20 cm) of rain per year.

Rainfall in any year can fall well short of the average, and rain may not fall for long periods of time.

Section 2


Section 25

Climate of Australia (cont.)

A zone of milder steppe climate encircles Australia’s desert region.

When rains do reach desert and steppe areas, they often come in heavy bursts and can cause flash floods, but high temperatures cause any amount of rain that falls to evaporate quickly.

Section 2


Section 26

Climate of Australia (cont.)

Eucalyptustrees are native to Australia and nearby islands.

Their thick, leathery leaves prevent loss of moisture and can survive rushing floodwaters.

Other plants have long roots that extend deep into the earth to find groundwater for the duration of the long dry season.

Section 2


Section 27

Climate of Australia (cont.)

Australia’s far north has a tropical savanna climate.

Summer months are hot and humid, but winter months, while hot, have less humidity.

Section 2


Section 28

Climate of Australia (cont.)

A narrow stretch of Australia’s northeastern coast is warm year-round with a humid subtropical climate.

Part of the southeastern coast has a marine west coast climate where summers are warm and winters are cool with plentiful rainfall.

Most of Australia’s people live in this area.

Section 2


Section 29

Climate of Australia (cont.)

The southern and western parts of Australia have a Mediterranean climate of warm summers and mild winters.

In these areas, rainfall is sufficient for raising crops, and temperatures are pleasant.

Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica: Climate Zones

Section 2


Section 210

A

B

C

D

What climate zone is NOT found in Australia’s vast interior?

A.Desert

B.Steppe

C.Tropical

D.None of the above

Section 2


Section 211

Climate of Oceania

New Zealand has a mild climate, while the smaller islands of Oceania are mainly tropical.

Section 2


Section 212

Climate of Oceania (cont.)

Much of New Zealand has a marine west coast climate.

Ocean winds here warm the land in winter and cool it in summer.

Rainfall is generally plentiful, ranging from 25 to 60 inches (64 to 152 cm) during the year.

Section 2


Section 213

Climate of Oceania (cont.)

In New Zealand, the mild temperatures and plentiful rain promote the year-round growth of pasture, the grasses and other plants that are feed for grazing livestock—a source of income for many New Zealanders.

Section 2


Section 214

Climate of Oceania (cont.)

Almost all of Oceania’s smaller islands lie in the Tropics, where temperatures average 80°F (27°C) throughout the year.

In some areas of Oceania, heavy rains come in the spring and summer, while in other areas, heavy rainfall comes in the summer and fall. Strong typhoons can occur in this area.

Section 2


Section 215

Climate of Oceania (cont.)

Oceania’s high islands have lower temperatures in mountainous areas, and the low islands are drier and warmer.

High islands have a variety of plant life and support farming.

Low islands support only a few kinds of plants, such as coconut palms and breadfruit trees. Breadfruit is a starchy pod that can be cooked in several ways and is a food staple in Oceania.

Section 2


Section 216

A

B

C

D

Rainfall in Oceania is affected by an island’s ____.

A.Latitude

B.Longitude

C.Elevation

D.Temperatures

Section 2


Section 217

The Climate of Antarctica

Antarctica is a cold desert where no humans live permanently.

Section 2


Section 218

The Climate of Antarctica (cont.)

Rainfall is so low in Antarctica that the continent is actually a desert.

Whatever precipitation that falls only adds to the ice that covers the continent’s surface.

Section 2


Section 219

The Climate of Antarctica (cont.)

Despite Antarctica’s coldness, the continent does have life.

Many different kinds of penguins live there, feeding off the rich sea life in the surrounding waters.

In rocky areas along the coasts, tiny, sturdy plants called lichensgrow.

Section 2


Section 220

A

B

C

D

Why is Antarctica so cold?

A.There is very little humidity.

B.It never receives the direct rays of the sun.

C.There is very little precipitation.

D.All of the above

Section 2


Section 2 end

Section 2-End


Splash screen

Landforms

Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica form a huge region that reaches from north of the Equator to the South Pole.

Australia is mainly flat with low relief. Erosion has worn down highland areas.

Australia’s Great Barrier Reef stretches 1,250 miles (2,012 km). It is the world’s largest coral reef.

VS 1


Splash screen

Landforms

New Zealand has high mountains and coastal lowlands.

Volcanic activity formed many of Oceania’s high islands; coral buildups created the low islands.

Thick ice covers Antarctica’s highlands and plains.

VS 1


Splash screen

Resources

Australia and New Zealand are rich in mineral and energy resources.

Islands in Oceania have few natural resources.

Antarctica’s natural resources are untapped.

Because Australia and New Zealand remained isolated for a long period, they have many unique plants and animals.

VS 2


Splash screen

Climates

Australia has mainly warm, dry climates. The country’s coasts have more moderate temperatures and receive more rainfall than inland areas.

New Zealand, close to the sea, has moderate temperatures and ample rain.

Oceania has tropical climates with warm temperatures year-round.

Antarctica is a bitterly cold desert.

VS 3


Vs end

VS-End


Figure 1

Figure 1


Time trans

TIME Trans


Dfs trans 1

DFS Trans 1


Dfs trans 2

DFS Trans 2


Vocab1

outback

inland areas of Australia west of the Great Dividing Range

Vocab1


Vocab2

coral reef

long undersea structure formed by the tiny skeletons of coral, a kind of sea life

Vocab2


Vocab3

geyser

spring of water heated by molten rock inside the earth that, from time to time, shoots hot water into the air

Vocab3


Vocab4

high island

mountainous island in the Pacific Ocean formed by volcanic activity

Vocab4


Vocab5

low island

type of island in the Pacific Ocean formed by the buildup of coral

Vocab5


Vocab6

atoll

circular shaped islands made of coral

Vocab6


Vocab7

continental island

island formed centuries ago by the rising and folding of the ocean floor due to tectonic activity

Vocab7


Vocab8

ice shelf

thick layer of ice that extends above the water

Vocab8


Vocab9

iceberg

huge piece of floating ice that broke off from an ice shelf or glacier and fell into the sea

Vocab9


Vocab10

marsupial

mammals that carry their young in a pouch

Vocab10


Vocab11

adjacent

next to or near

Vocab11


Vocab12

accurate

exact

Vocab12


Vocab13

eucalyptus

tree found only in Australia and nearby islands that is well suited to dry conditions with leathery leaves, deep roots, and ability to survive when rivers flood

Vocab13


Vocab14

pasture

grasses and other plants that are ideal feed for grazing animals

Vocab14


Vocab15

breadfruit

fruit from a tree of the same name that is a basic food in Oceania

Vocab15


Vocab16

lichen

tiny sturdy plants that grow in rocky areas

Vocab16


Vocab17

distort

present in a manner that is misleading

Vocab17


Vocab18

duration

length of time something lasts

Vocab18


Vocab19

sufficient

enough

Vocab19


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