Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Physical Features Section 2: Climate Region Summary. Chapter Menu.
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Human-Environment Interaction The region of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica has great variety in landforms and climate. It includes high mountains, low plains, and tropical islands, as well as hot and cold deserts. How might the remoteness of a region make it different from other places?Chapter Intro 1
Physical processes shape Earth’s surface. This region contains an amazing variety of landforms. Australia has mountains as well as vast plains. Most of Oceania’s islands were formed from volcanic activity or from coral, the skeletons of hundreds of millions of small sea creatures. Some islands were formed by the rising and folding of rock on the ocean floor. Antarctica’s mountains are surrounded by glaciers that are many feet thick.Chapter Intro 2
At Hot Water Beach on the North Island of New Zealand, visitors can create their own hot water spas. Underground springs are heated by regional volcanoes and are pushed toward the surface, where just a little digging will result in a nice pool of 147°F (64°C) mineral water in which to soak your cares away.Section 1
Australia, a continent as well as the sixth-largest country in the world, is mostly flat and has low relief, or few differences in the elevations of adjacent areas.
Good farmland is found on the narrow plains in the south and southeast, near the Murray and the Darling Rivers.Section 1
Australia’s outbackis a vast, flat, and dry area of plains and plateaus with isolated, heavily eroded masses of rock that stand above the lowland.
Off Australia’s northeastern coast lies the Great Barrier Reef. It is the world’s largest coral reef, a structure formed by the skeletons of small sea animals.Section 1
Because the region is mostly isolated islands, some native plants and animals are found nowhere else in the world.
Two are Australia’s kangaroos and Koalas. Both are marsupials, or mammals that carry their young in a pouch.
New Zealand has the kiwi, a flightless bird.Section 1
Places reflect the relationship between humans and the physical environment.Section 2-Main Idea
Blizzards in Antarctica are different from the type of fierce, blowing snowfalls that occur in other parts of the world. In Antarctica, blizzards are caused by heavy winds swirling up snow that is actually already on the ground.Section 2
Eucalyptustrees are native to Australia and nearby islands.
Their thick, leathery leaves prevent loss of moisture and can survive rushing floodwaters.
Other plants have long roots that extend deep into the earth to find groundwater for the duration of the long dry season.Section 2
A narrow stretch of Australia’s northeastern coast is warm year-round with a humid subtropical climate.
Part of the southeastern coast has a marine west coast climate where summers are warm and winters are cool with plentiful rainfall.
Most of Australia’s people live in this area.Section 2
Almost all of Oceania’s smaller islands lie in the Tropics, where temperatures average 80°F (27°C) throughout the year.
In some areas of Oceania, heavy rains come in the spring and summer, while in other areas, heavy rainfall comes in the summer and fall. Strong typhoons can occur in this area.Section 2
Oceania’s high islands have lower temperatures in mountainous areas, and the low islands are drier and warmer.
High islands have a variety of plant life and support farming.
Low islands support only a few kinds of plants, such as coconut palms and breadfruit trees. Breadfruit is a starchy pod that can be cooked in several ways and is a food staple in Oceania.Section 2
Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica form a huge region that reaches from north of the Equator to the South Pole.
Australia is mainly flat with low relief. Erosion has worn down highland areas.
Australia’s Great Barrier Reef stretches 1,250 miles (2,012 km). It is the world’s largest coral reef.VS 1
Australia has mainly warm, dry climates. The country’s coasts have more moderate temperatures and receive more rainfall than inland areas.
New Zealand, close to the sea, has moderate temperatures and ample rain.
Oceania has tropical climates with warm temperatures year-round.
Antarctica is a bitterly cold desert.VS 3
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