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Cost-Effective Interventions for Juvenile Offenders






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Cost-Effective Interventions for Juvenile Offenders. Dr. Peter W. Greenwood Academy of Experimental Criminology Association for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice University of California at Irvine VisionQuest Greenwood & Associates. The Good News.
Cost-Effective Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

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Slide 1

Cost-Effective Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

Dr. Peter W. Greenwood

Academy of Experimental Criminology

Association for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice

University of California at Irvine

VisionQuest

Greenwood & Associates

Slide 2

The Good News

  • There are proven program strategies and models that consistently improve outcomes, when implemented correctly

  • They cover full range of child development

  • Several pay for themselves, many times over, in reduced corrections costs

Slide 3

What Works

  • Functional Family Therapy (FFT)

  • Multi-systemic Therapy (MST)

  • Treatment Foster Care (TFC)

  • Nurse-Family Partnerships (NFP)

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

  • Aggression Replacement Training (ART)

  • Program Accountability (QA)

Slide 5

2005 Legislative Direction(ESSB 6094):

  • “Study options to stabilize futureprison populations.”

  • “Study the net short-run and long-runfiscal savingsto state and local governmentsof implementing…

    • evidence-basedtreatment human service and corrections programs and policies, including prevention and intervention programs,

    • sentencingalternatives,

    • and the use of risk factors in sentencing.”

  • “Project total fiscal impactsunder alternative implementation scenarios.”

WSIPP published report in October, 2006

2 of 7

Slide 6

United

States

Forecast

for WA

Washington

Adult Prison Incarceration Rates:

1930 to2005

*Incarceration Rate

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

*The incarceration rate is defined as the number of inmates in state prisons per 1,000 18- to 49-year-olds in Washington or the United States.

3 of 7

Slide 7

?

Percent Change Since 1980

$

$

$

+100%

$

$

$

?

$

+80%

$

Taxpayer Costs Are Up

(Inflation-Adjusted Criminal Justice

Dollars Per Household)

$

$

+60%

$

$

$

+40%

$

$

?

$

$

$

$

$

$

+20%

$

$

$

0%

-20%

Crime Rates Are Down

(Violent and Property Crimes Reported to Police, Per 1,000 People)

?

-40%

2010

2015

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Crime Rates and Taxpayer Costs

In 1980, taxpayers spent $589 per household on the Criminal Justice System. Today they spend $1,125: a 91% increase.

In 2005, crime rates were 26% lower than they were in 1980.

All Data are for Washington State: 1980 to 2005

4 of 7

Slide 8

Results for Three Example Portfolios of Evidence-Based Options

Prison Supply & Demand in Washington: 2008 to 2030

Prison Beds

30,000

Current Prison Bed Forecast

28,000

Current Level Portfolio

“Moderate” Expansion Portfolio

26,000

“Aggressive” Expansion Portfolio

24,000

3

2 prison shortfall

22,000

20,000

18,000

16,000

0

0

2008

2008

2010

2010

2012

2012

2014

2014

2016

2016

2018

2018

2020

2020

2022

2022

2024

2024

2026

2026

2028

2028

2030

2030

30,000

CFC prison forecast and WSIPP extension

28,000

Forecast with Current Level Portfolio

Forecast with Moderate Implementation Portfolio

Forecast with Aggressive Implementation Portfolio

26,000

24,000

22,000

20,000

18,000

Existing Prison Supply

Existing Prison Supply

& Rented Jail Beds

& Rented Jail Beds

16,000

Taxpayer Summary Statistics

Current Level

Moderate

Aggressive

Annual cost of portfolio

$41 million

$63 million

$85 million

Long-run benefits minus costs

$1.1 billion

$1.7 billion

$2.4 billion

$2.45

$2.60

$2.55

Benefit-to-cost ratio

Return on investment

24%

27%

28%

6 of 7

Crime Rate in 2020 (2005 rate = 52)

48

48

49

Slide 9

Evidence-Based Programs, Crime Outcomes

What does this mean? Answer:

Without the Drug Court, an adult offender has a 43%

chance of recidivating with a new felony within 8 years;

with the Drug Court, the odds drop to about 38%.

This finding is based on 57 rigorous studies conducted throughout the United States.

What does this mean? Answer:

The reduction in recidivism generates $5,640 per participant in benefits to taxpayers (reduced future criminal justice costs)

and crime victims (reduced victimization).

Drug Courts cost $4,245 more per person than regular court processing (court costs, treatment).

Expected Change

In Crime

(# of EB Studies)

Benefits minus Costs (per-person, life cycle)

Selected Results

Adult Offenders

Cog-Behavioral Treatment-6.3% (25) $10,299

Education Prms., Prison-7.0% (17) $10,669

Drug Tx in Prison (TC or out-patient)-5.7% (20) $7,835

Adult Drug Courts-8.0% (57) $4,767

ISP: surveillance-0.0% (23) -$3,747

ISP: treatment-17.1% (11) $11,563

Juvenile Offenders

Functional Family Thpy.-15.9% (7) $31,821

Family Int. Transitions-13.0% (1) $40,545

Aggression Repl. Trng.-7.3% (4) $14,660

Restorative Justice (low risk)-8.7% (21) $7,067

Prevention

Pre-School* (low income)-14.2% (8) $12,196

Nurse Family Partnership*-36.3% (2) $27,105

Electronic Monitoring*-0.0% (9) $870

Some Things Work, Some Don’t…Be a Smart Investor!

Why Focus on Juveniles?

73% of Adults in Washington’s Prisons have been in Washington’s Juvenile Justice System

Slide 10

What does this mean for Connecticut

  • State has been leader in implementing E-B programs

  • Evidence suggests these investments have high pay-off

  • But these programs are not available to youth at highest risk

Slide 11

For further information

  • Greenwood, P.W., Changing Lives:Delinquency Prevention as Crime Control Policy,, University of Chicago Press (2006)

  • Greenwood, P. W. Promising Solutions in Juvenile Justice in Dishion, T. and K. Dodge (eds.) Deviant Peer Influences in Programs for Youth, Guilford Press (2006)

  • www.greenwoodassociates.org

  • peter.greenwood@sbcglobal.net

  • www.wsipp.org


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