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COMPUTING Std IX

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- Reservations in railways & airplanes.
- Computerized bills of electricity, telephone, insurance premium.
- Workers paybills

- Merit list & Results of various organization.
- Printing of news paper and magazines..
- Widely used in Banks, Share market & Insurance Company.

- Scientific research.
- Launching of satellite.
- Forecasting of weather.
- Television & cable advertisement etc.

Ours is a knowledge oriented society and we are eager to

- Have more and more knowledge,
- Generate new knowledge.
- Utilize the existing knowledge in best possible way and more efficiently.

- Abacus
- Logarithms
- Slide rule
- Pascal’s adding machine
- Babbages analytical Engine
- Turing machine
- Calculator

Abacus

Abacus, instrument used in performing arithmetic calculations. Many early civilizations used the abacus. In ancient Roman culture it was a sand-covered wax tablet, marked table, or grooved table or tablet. A simplified form of abacus was used in medieval England. The abacus is still used in China and Japan.

The first tables of logarithms were published independently by the Scottish mathematician John Napier in 1614 and the Swiss mathematician Justus Byrgius in 1620. The first table of common logarithms was compiled by the English mathematician Henry Briggs.

SLIDE RULE

Slide Rule

Prior to the Invention of the hand-held calculator, the slide rule was a standard tool for engineers and scientists. Operating on the principle that all mathematical computations may be carried out on sets of sliding scales, the device looks much like a heavily calibrated ruler with a movable midsection. The midsection, called the sliding center scales, is engraved with fine lines to allow the user to align different logarithmic scales rapidly and efficiently. Multiplication, addition, subtraction, division, squaring, cubing, extracting roots, and more complicated calculations were computed regularly by adept users until well into the 1960s.

Pascal Adding Machine

Pascal (computer), a concise procedural computer programming language, designed 1967-71 by Niklaus Wirth. Pascal, a compiled, structured language, built upon ALGOL, simplifies syntax while adding data types and structures such as subranges, enumerated data types, files, records, and sets. Acceptance and use of Pascal exploded with Borland International's introduction in 1984 of Turbo Pascal, a high-speed, low-cost Pascal compiler for MS-DOS systems that has sold over a million copies in its various versions.

Babbages analytical Engine

Analytical Engine, a mechanical calculating machine that was conceived by British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage in 1833 but only a part of which was ever constructed. The first general-purpose digital computer, the Analytical Engine, although conceived long before electronics technology appeared, was to have been capable of storing instructions, performing mathematical operations, and using punched cards as a form of permanent memory.

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In 1936 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process equations without human direction. The machine (now known as a Turing machine) resembled an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. Turing intended the device to be used as a “universal machine” that could be programmed to duplicate the function of any other existing machine. Turing’s machine was the theoretical precursor to the modern digital computer.

In 1967 a team of three engineers from Texas Instruments, Inc. invented the portable, electronic, handheld calculator. Jack Kilby, widely known as the inventor of the integrated circuit (IC), or computer chip,along with Jerry Merryman and James Van Tassel, built an IC-based, battery-powered miniature calculator that could add, subtract, multiply, and divide. This basic calculator could accept 6-digit numbers and display results as large as 12 digits. The prototype of this device is now displayed in the Smithsonian Institution, based in Washington, D.C.

- Input Devices
- Output Devices
- Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)
- Memory Unit
- Control Unit

Input Devices

- Input Devices: - It is used to pass on the data and program to the computer.

Parts of a computerText book PAGE No. 113

CPU

Input Devices

- Central Processing Unit: -A unit consisting of ALU, Memory Unit and Control Unit is called CPU.

Parts of a computerText book PAGE No. 113

CPU

Input Devices

Output Devices

- Output Devices: - It is used to pass on the final answer to the user.

Parts of a computerText book PAGE No. 113

CPU

ALU

Input Devices

Output Devices

- Arithmetic Logic Unit: - It is a part which does the calculation work apart from some other work.

Parts of a computerText book PAGE No. 114

CPU

ALU

Input Devices

Control Unit

Output Devices

- Control Unit: -This unit controls all other units. It also give instruction to other units as and when required by a program.

Parts of a computerText book PAGE No. 113

CPU

ALU

Input Devices

Control Unit

Output Devices

Memory Unit

- Memory Unit: - The data and instruction, which we supply through input devices, are stored in a unit called “memory unit”. This data can be used whenever required.

Ex 10.1 page 116Q1. What are the special features of a computer?

- A computer carries out the instruction most obediently and very accurately.
- It works continuously for lengthy or repetitive type of work.
- It works with a tremendous speed.
- It has a memory with voluminous data and / or large number of instruction can be stored.
- The information stored in the computer can be processed and various reports can be generated.

Types of Computation

Text book PAGE No. 114

- Numeric Computation
- Alphabetic Computation
- Alpha-numeric computation

Text book PAGE No. 116

Q3 ) Give an example of alpha-numeric computation.

Ans ) To prepare a list of the ages of the students of your class as on today and arrange their ages in the descending order.

- 27 - 13 ( 64 ÷ 2 – 19 x 13 ) -11
- 27 - 13 ( 32 – 19 x 13 ) -11
- 27 - 13 ( 32 – 247 ) -11
- 27 - 13 ( - 215 ) -11
- 27 + 2795 – 11
- 2882 – 11
- 2811

- 15 – ( 18 x 5 ) + ( 60 ÷12 ) – (– 20 ) + 2
- 15 – ( 18 x 5 ) + ( 5 ) – (– 20 ) + 2
- 15 – ( 90 ) + ( 5 ) – ( – 20 ) + 2
- 15 – ( 90 ) + ( 5 ) + 20 + 2
- – 75 + 5 + 20 + 2
- – 70 + 20 + 2
- – 50 + 2
- – 48

- 12 – ( +3 ) + 10 – ( 8 x 12 ) ÷ ( + 22 )
- 12 – ( +3 ) + 10 – ( 96 ) ÷ ( + 22 )
- 12 – ( +3 ) + 10 – 4.36
- 12 – 3 + 10 – 4.36
- 12 + 7 – 4.36
- 19 – 4.36
- 14.64

Q1. What is an algorithm?

- Algorithm: - The step by step procedure to solve a problem is known as an algorithm

Q2. What is a flowchart?

- Flowchart: - The diagrammatic representation of an algorithm is called a “Flowchart”.

- Analyse the problem.
- Think of a solution procedure.
- Write step by step instructions to get the solution.
- Draw a flowchart.

Terminal Box

Terminal Box for “START” and “STOP”.

Examples

START

STOP

Flowchart

Input & Output Box

“PRINT” or “INPUT” or “OUTPUT” box.

Examples

Input the

value of A

Print the

value of A

Read the value

of A,B and C

Flowchart

Rectangular Box

Rectangular box for calculation and storage.

Examples

Calculate the value of

I = (P *N*R) / 100

Store the

value of I

Flowchart

Yes

No

Decision box

Decision box

Examples

Is a>b

Flowchart

Flow Lines

Lines with arrows to indicate the direction of flow.

Examples

Start

Read the

value of A

Flowchart

No

1

Yes

Connectors

Connectors to link the flowcharts

Examples

Is A > 10

Print the

value of A

START

START

Read the

value of ‘m’

Read the

value of ‘m’

Store the

value of ‘m’

Print the

value of ‘m’

Print the

value of ‘m’

STOP

STOP

START

START

1

Read the

value of ‘m’

Read the

value of ‘m’

Calculate

x = m + n

Read the

value of ‘n’

Store the

value of ‘m’

Store the value

of x

Read the

value of ‘n’

Print the

value of ‘x’

Calculate

x = m + n

STOP

Store the

value of ‘n’

Print the

value of ‘x’

1

STOP

1

START

Read the

value of length as ‘l ’

Calculate Perimeter as

P = 2 ( l + b )

Read the

value of breadth as ‘b’

Print the value

of Area as A

Calculate Area as

A = l x b

Print the value of

Perimeter as P

1

STOP

START

Read the

value of base as ‘b ’

Read the

value of height as ‘h’

Print the value

of Area as A

Calculate Area as

A = ½ x b x h

STOP

START

Read the

value of ‘m’

Read the

value of ‘n’

Calculate Average

as ‘Av’ = (m + n)

2

Print the value of

Average as ‘Av’

STOP

START

Read the value of C.P

as C = Rs. 40

Read the value of S.P.

as S = Rs. 45

Calculate Profit

as ‘P’ = S - P

Print the value of

Profit as ‘P’

STOP

START

1

Read the value of

distance as ‘D’= 100 km

Calculate distance in centimeters

as C = D x 1000 x 100

Calculate distance in meters

as M = D x 1000

Print the value of

C = 1,00,00,000 cm

Print the value

of M = 1,00,000 m

STOP

1

Text book page 125Q10) A plot size 50m X 60m is purchased at the rate of Rs. 1120/- per square meter. Draw a flowchart to print the cost of the plot.

1

START

Read the value of

length as ‘l ’= 60m

Calculate cost as

C = ( l x b ) x r

Read the value of

breadth as ‘b’= 50m

Print the value

of Cost as C

Read the value of

Rate as ‘r’= Rs. 1120

STOP

1

Text book page 125Q12) The length and the breadth of a rectangle is input through keyboard. Draw a flowchart to print the area of the rectangle only if the perimeter is greater than 30.

1

START

Is

P>30

No

Read the

value of length as ‘l ’

Yes

Calculate Area as

A = l x b

Read the

value of breadth as ‘b’

Calculate Perimeter as

P = 2 ( l + b )

Print the value

of Area as A

1

STOP

START

Read the

value of ‘a’

Read the

value of ‘b’

No

Yes

Print ‘The value

of b is greater’

Is

a > b

Print ‘The value

of a is greater’

STOP

START

Read the

value of ‘a’

Read the

value of ‘b’

Is

a = b

Yes

Print ‘The value

of a = b’

Is

a > = b

Yes

No

No

Print ‘The value

of b is greater’

Print ‘The value

of a is greater’

STOP

Text book page 125Q11) Draw a flowchart to print the smallest of the three distinct numbers.

START

Read the value of

a, b and c

Yes

Is

a < c

Yes

Is

a < b

No

Is

b < c

Yes

No

No

Print the

value of a

Print the

value of c

Print the

value of c

Print the

value of b

STOP