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Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds. Ionic Compounds Molecular Compounds. Nomenclature. Cation : A positive ion Mg 2+ , NH 4 + Anion : A negative ion Cl - , SO 4 2 - Ionic Bonding : Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. Ions. Group 1 :.

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nomenclature

Chemical Formulas

and

Chemical Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Molecular Compounds

Nomenclature
slide2

Cation: A positive ion

  • Mg2+, NH4+
  • Anion: A negative ion
  • Cl-, SO42-
  • Ionic Bonding: Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Ions
predicting ionic charges

Group 1:

Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions

H+

Li+

Na+

K+

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges1

Group 2:

Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions

Be2+

Mg2+

Ca2+

Ba2+

Sr2+

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges2

Group 13:

Loses 3

electrons to form

3+ ions

B3+

Al3+

Ga3+

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges3

Group 14:

Lose 4

electrons or gain

4 electrons?

Neither! Group 13 elements rarely form ions.

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges4

Nitride

N3-

Group 15:

Gains 3

electrons to form

3- ions

P3-

Phosphide

As3-

Arsenide

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges5

Oxide

O2-

Gains 2

electrons to form

2- ions

Group 16:

S2-

Sulfide

Se2-

Selenide

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges6

F1-

Fluoride

Br1-

Bromide

Group 17:

Gains 1

electron to form

1- ions

Cl1-

Chloride

I1-

Iodide

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges7

Group 18:

Stable Noble gases do not form ions!

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges8

Many transition elements

have more than one possible oxidation state.

Groups 3 - 12:

Iron(II) = Fe2+

Iron(III) = Fe3+

Predicting Ionic Charges
predicting ionic charges9

Some transition elements

have only one possible oxidation state.

Groups 3 - 12:

Zinc=Zn2+

Silver = Ag+

Predicting Ionic Charges
writing ionic compound formulas

Example: Barium nitrate

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

()

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Ba2+

NO3-

2

Not balanced!

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you needmorethanone of a polyatomicion.

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
writing ionic compound formulas1

Example: Ammonium sulfate

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

()

NH4+

SO42-

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

2

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Not balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
writing ionic compound formulas2

Example: Iron(III) chloride

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

Fe3+

Cl-

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

3

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Not balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
writing ionic compound formulas3

Example: Aluminum sulfide

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Al3+

S2-

2

3

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Not balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
writing ionic compound formulas4

Example: Magnesium carbonate

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

Mg2+

CO32-

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

They are balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
writing ionic compound formulas5

Example: Zinc hydroxide

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

( )

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Zn2+

OH-

2

3. Balance charges , if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion.

Not balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
writing ionic compound formulas6

Example: Aluminum phosphate

1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES!

2. Check to see if charges are balanced.

Al3+

PO43-

They ARE balanced!

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
naming ionic compounds

1. Cation first, then anion

  • 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element
  • Ca2+ = calciumion
  • 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide
  • Cl- = chloride
  • CaCl2= calcium chloride
Naming Ionic Compounds
naming ionic compounds continued

- some metal forms more than one cation

  • - use Roman numeralin name
  • PbCl2
  • Pb2+is cation
  • PbCl2 = lead(II) chloride

Metals with multiple oxidation states

Naming Ionic Compounds(continued)
naming binary compounds

-Compounds between two nonmetals

  • - Elements are listed from lower left to upper right in the periodic table
  • -First element in the formula is named first.
  • -Second element is named as if it were an anion.
  • - Use prefixes
  • - Only use mono on second element –

P2O5 =

diphosphorus pentoxide

CO2 =

carbon dioxide

Naming Binary Compounds

CO =

carbon monoxide

N2O =

dinitrogen monoxide

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