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Music of Sub-Saharan Africa. “ Senzenina ”. In This Unit, We Will…. Explore the geography of areas with African music Explore the instruments used in African music Listen to music from different African cultures, populations, and religious groups

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In this unit we will
In This Unit, We Will…

  • Explore the geography of areas with African music

  • Explore the instruments used in African music

  • Listen to music from different African cultures, populations, and religious groups

  • Sing a traditional song from the Zulu people, “Senzenina”

  • Create a polyrhythmic song as a class and in small groups


What will i be doing
What Will I Be Doing?”

You will be doing three different things…

  • #1: Creating connections between content areas – Geography, History, Art, Technology, and Music

  • #2: Listening to new music that you may never have heard before

  • #3: Learning melodies, harmonies, and rhythms from different cultures


Geography
Geography

  • Sub-Sahara Africa is a geographical term that refers to the area of Africa that lies beneath the Sahara desert

  • Sub-Sahara Africa includes...

    • Kenya

    • Rwanda

    • Uganda

    • Sudan Over 49 countries!

    • Ethiopia

    • Zimbabwe

    • Madagascar


Languages spoken
Languages Spoken

  • Sub-Saharan Africa displays the most linguistic diversity of any region in the world.

  • The region contains over

    1,000 languages, which is 1/6

    of the world's total!


Religions
Religions

  • Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian

  • North African (not part of Sub-Sahara Africa) is Islamic and considered part of the Arab world


Characteristics of sub saharan african music
Characteristics of Sub-Saharan African Music

  • Polyrhythm: Rhythms that occur at the same time in two different meters

  • Responsorial Forms:An exchange between a performer’s vocal or instrumental call and a group response

  • Ostinato:A short pattern that repeats over and over again

  • Use of Percussion: Reflects the emphasis of music making with drums, rattles, bells, xylophones, and the mbira (we’ll discuss this more later)


Polyrhythm
polyrhythm

  • Rhythms that occur at the same time in two different meters

  • Grand Master Djembe Player – Polyrhythm

  • The Jamani Drummers

  • Djemba Drummers in Cape Town


Responsorial forms
Responsorial forms

  • An exchange between a performer’s vocal or instrumental call and a group response

  • Thula Sizwe Singers (6:00 minute clip)

  • ABC News Clip on Ensigo


Ostinato
Ostinato

  • A short pattern that repeats over and over again

  • AUCB Acting Course – Senzenina

  • Blackburn Choir – Senzenina


Use of percussion
Use of percussion

  • Reflects the emphasis of music making with drums, rattles, bells, xylophones, and the mbira

  • Ogene (solo instrument)

  • Ogene Igbo (group performance)


Mbira
Mbira

  • An instrument made up of metal rows that are plucked by the player’s thumbs

  • Metallic, ringing sound

  • Song on the Mbira


Traditional african instruments
Traditional African instruments

  • There are three classifications;

    • Membranophones

    • Idiophones

    • Aerophones


Traditional african instruments cont
Traditional African Instruments cont…

  • Membranophones: A big, fancy word for… DRUMS! 

  • Drums are by far the most famous of the African instruments and come in many different forms

  • Drummers use either their hands or sticks (sometimes one of each) to hit the drum head. They may also use something called an “elbow stick”

  • Drummers from Rwanda


Traditional african instruments cont1
TRADITIONAL AFRICAN INSTRUMENTS CONT…

  • Idiophones: Anything from large xylophones

    to tiny bells, shakers, wooden sticks, or rattles

  • Xylophones made of wood, metal, gourds, pottery

  • Sometimes a solo instruments, but usually

    an ensemble instrument

  • African Marimba Group


Traditional african instruments cont2
TRADITIONAL AFRICAN INSTRUMENTS CONT…

  • Aerophones: The human voice or any instrument that amplifies the human voice

  • Opening-throat singing is used in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is a husky or nasally sound

  • Other distinct kinds of African singing include whisper singing, which is a soft, breathy, almost growling tone

  • Yodeling may also be used

    (Pygmies of Central Africa)


Welcome chloe renea crowe may 9 th 2012 @ 2 33 pm
Welcome chloereneacroweMay 9th, 2012 @ 2:33 pm


Music as a livelihood
Music as a livelihood

  • Burundi Drummers

  • Kenyan Boy Choir

  • “There is No Movement Without Rhythm”

    Documentary on Rhythm and Daily Life in South Africa (10:51 minutes)


Apartheid in africa
Apartheid in Africa

  • “Senzenina” came out of the Apartheid in Africa. The Apartheid was a national law that segregated white citizens and black citizens in Africa and denied blacks citizenship

  • It was officially established in 1948 and ran until… 1994

  • The origin of the song is unclear, but it has been used in many different movies and documents highlighting the Apartheid and is now a popular choral piece in the United States and Great Brittan


The rain stick the wooden frogs and the maracas
The Rain Stick, the Wooden frogs, and the maracas

  • Music and rhythm can be created just by hitting two sticks together, the idea for the simple percussive instrument

    RHYTHM STICKS

  • Additional percussion instruments include shakers, like the maracas, or something more elaborate, like the African rain stick

  • Carved wooden frogs with ridges cut into their backs produce a sound similar to the “ribbit” of a frog. A wooden dowel is drug across their spines to produce the sound


#1

#2

#3


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