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. . . . Dikotomi baru: Ekonomi Berkelanjutan vs Ekologi Berkelanjutan? Dimanakah posisi kita saat ini? Menuju arah keberlanjutan yang mana? Jadi mau kemanakah kita? Apakah akan tercipta Paranoia atau kemitraan. Degradasi Lingkungan Hidup dan deplesi Sumber Daya Alam (SDA). Meningkatnya disparitas
Pengantar Kajian Lingkungan Hidup Strategis

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1. Pengantar Kajian Lingkungan Hidup Strategis Triarko Nurlambang Anggota Tim KLHS Dirjen Bina Bangda - DEPDAGRI Pusat Penelitian Geografi Terapan UI

3. Kondisi Krisis Ekologi dan Pembangunan

6. Pendekatan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan dan peran Kelembagaan (Formal dan Informal) sebagai ?Pendorong/Driver?

9. KLHS MEMFASILITASI TERINTEGRASINYA ISU-ISU LINGKUNGAN HIDUP DAN KEBERLANJUTAN (Untuk Kebijakan-Rencana-Program/KRP)

10. Meningkatkan manfaat pembangunan. Rencana dan implementasi pembangunan lebih terjamin keberlanjutannya. Mengurangi kemungkinan kekeliruan dalam membuat prakiraan/prediksi pada awal proses perencanaan kebijakan, rencana, atau program pembangunan. Dampak negatif lingkungan di tingkat proyek pembangunan semakin efektif diatasi atau dicegah karena pertimbangan lingkungan telah dikaji sejak tahap formulasi kebijakan, rencana, atau program pembangunan.

11. Tujuan KLHS

14. Nilai Dasar KLHS

15. PRINSIP-PRINSIP (Kriteria performa) Sesuai tujuan (fit for purpose) Bersifat obyektif (objective led) Dijiwai oleh semangat keberlanjutan (sustainability led) Komprehensif (comprehensive scope) Relevan untuk keputusan (decision relevant) Integratif (integrative) Partisipatif (participative) Efektif biaya (cost-effectiveness)

19. BEDA DENGAN AMDAL [lanjutan]

20. KARAKTERISTIK Kajian dapat dilakukan secara BERJENJANG [tiering]: Nasional ? provinsi ? kabupaten/kota Kebijakan ? rencana ? program instrumen PENGIKAT antar sektor, wilayah, dan lembaga ? menjawab distorsi pemahaman OTDA Fokus pada KONSEP, bukan rancangan teknis fisik. Antisipatif terhadap dampak lingkungan yang bersifat KUMULATIF, TIDAK LANGSUNG, dan SINERGISTIK..

24. 24 Bagaimana mengintegrasikan KLHS dalam pembuatan keputusan/kebijakan?

26. 26 Contoh KLHS dalam satu kesatuan (merge) proses Tidak ada proses standar KLHS KLHS sebagai satu set kegiatan kunci dalam perencanaan, diantaranya: Pemantapan visi untuk masa depan yang diinginkan Identifikasi isu-isu kritis LH Kaji opsi-opsi untuk menciptakan masa depan yang diinginkan Identifikasi dan kaji aksi-aksi untuk merealisasi strategi terbaik dll. ref: Partidario 2007

27. 27 Mana yang paling efektif? Merged processes: Opsi terbaik jika para perencana memiliki sikap yang positif terhadap permasalahan LH dan KLHS Integrated processes: Opsi terbaik untuk kasus yang memiliki sikap negatif (terhadap LH) Dasar yang terbaik (only?) untuk membuat peraturan Praktek yang paling banyak diterapkan di dunia

28. 28 Seberapa ?dini? KLHS mulai diterapkan? ?Sangat awal?: Proposal kebijakan belum ada (baru ide/wacana) Analisis KLHS dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi masalah KLHS membantu membangun proposal Contoh: ide menghubungkan secara fisik pulau Jawa dan Sumatera (terowongan atau jembatan ?) ?Awal?: Sudah ada proposal kebijakan KLHS mengkaji dampak Proses KLHS memberi peluang alternatif yang lebih baik Contoh: proses RPJP, RPJM, RTRW

29. 29 Fokus kunci pada dampak atau isntitusi? KLHS fokus pada dampak : KLHS memprediksi dampak masa depan dari opsi-opsi kebijakan Kemudian membangun opsi terbaik KLHS fokus pada penguatan institusi: KLHS mengidentifikasi titik lemah dalam peran institusi untuk pengelolaan LH dari rumusan kebijakan baru Kemudian memberikan pendapat opsi-opsi untuk penguatan institusi

30. 30 Bagaimana KLHS dapat berpengaruh? Ada 3 bangunan KLHS: Informasi yang baik: kajian yang solid tentang isu-isu keberlanjutan Partisipasi penuh: struktur perdebatan antara pemerintah dan publik mengenai isu-isu tersebut Pengaruh: mekanisme yang memastikan hasil kajian dan debat ikut dipertimbangkan

31. 31 Mana yang lebih efektif? Fokus pada dampak atau institusi? Fokus pada dampak: Selalu penting, tetapi seringkali sangat sulit untuk tingkat kebijakan Fokus pada institusi: Selalu penting, tetapi seringkali tidak optimal dalam proses KLHS

32. 32 Bagaimana mekanisme agar KLHS berpengaruh? Melalui proses organisasi: Komitmen politisi, pimpinan industri, tokoh masyarakat sipil (?create champions?) Organisir kerjasama antar dinas

35. Penataan ruang sebagai instrumen preemtif pengelolaan lingkungan [UU 23/1997]. Kebijakan umum penataan ruang yang tertuang dalam UU 26/2007 telah mengakomodasi pertimbangan lingkungan ? KLHS membantu memastikan sampai tingkat implementasi. Instrumen pelengkap KLHS untuk memastikan kepentingan lingkungan dipertimbangkan secara memadai dalam rencana tata ruang wilayah: daya dukung dan daya tampung lingkungan, valuasi ekonomi lingkungan, dll.

36. RTRWN RTR-PULAU RTRK STRATEGIS PER-PEL UU 26/2007

37. Sekian dan terima kasih

39. Before SEA is initiated, the responsible agency defines the basis for a proposed policy, bill, plan or programme. A preliminary statement should be made of the need, purpose and objectives to be achieved. These aims are not subject to review by an SEA, but the justification of a proposal is conditional on its environmental impact. The SEA process itself must be objectives-led in order to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal. Preparatory methods of identifying environmental objectives include policy and legal review (e.g. goals, standards and targets outlined in government strategy, obligations under international environmental agreements). Formal screening procedures can be divided into two types. Listed proposals subject to SEA are specified in legislation or guidelines. Case-by-case screening applies to all proposals to determine which ones have potentially significant environmental effects and warrant full assessment. Screening criteria and checklists from EIA can be readily adapted to this purpose, supplemented, as necessary, by policy tree diagrams and stakeholder consultation. Before SEA is initiated, the responsible agency defines the basis for a proposed policy, bill, plan or programme. A preliminary statement should be made of the need, purpose and objectives to be achieved. These aims are not subject to review by an SEA, but the justification of a proposal is conditional on its environmental impact. The SEA process itself must be objectives-led in order to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal. Preparatory methods of identifying environmental objectives include policy and legal review (e.g. goals, standards and targets outlined in government strategy, obligations under international environmental agreements). Formal screening procedures can be divided into two types. Listed proposals subject to SEA are specified in legislation or guidelines. Case-by-case screening applies to all proposals to determine which ones have potentially significant environmental effects and warrant full assessment. Screening criteria and checklists from EIA can be readily adapted to this purpose, supplemented, as necessary, by policy tree diagrams and stakeholder consultation.

41. Nine steps to SEA Scoping: Identify the important issues/ impacts that need to be examined; assemble envtl. information. Steps 1-3 1) Find the stakeholders & announce start of the SEA process 2) Develop a shared vision on problems/objectives/ alternatives 3) Do a consistency analysis: new versus existing objectives

42. For plans and programmes with a spatial dimension, the baseline can be recorded as environmental stock and critical natural assets. Key indicators are used to measure change in terms of global sustainability, natural resource management and local environmental quality. Appropriate indicators for sector-specific proposals will depend on the key environmental impacts (e.g. emissions-based air quality indicators for energy, transport strategies). Formulation of alternatives in the SEA process is central to integrating environment considerations into sector policy and plan-making. A first step is to identify the range of alternatives that meet the objectives of the proposal, and summarize their economic, social, and environmental aspects. The alternatives should include a ?do nothing? alternative and best practicable environmental option (BPEO). Where a large number of alternatives are potentially open, methods used to systematically compare them include environmental benefit-cost analysis and multi-criteria evaluation (e.g. formulation of national energy or water policy). The BPEO helps clarify the environmental trade-offs that are at stake, and the basis for choice. Objectives-led SEA is critical for this purpose, and also can empower risk and benefit negotiation (e.g. to reduce NOx emissions as part of transport strategy). For plans and programmes with a spatial dimension, the baseline can be recorded as environmental stock and critical natural assets. Key indicators are used to measure change in terms of global sustainability, natural resource management and local environmental quality. Appropriate indicators for sector-specific proposals will depend on the key environmental impacts (e.g. emissions-based air quality indicators for energy, transport strategies). Formulation of alternatives in the SEA process is central to integrating environment considerations into sector policy and plan-making. A first step is to identify the range of alternatives that meet the objectives of the proposal, and summarize their economic, social, and environmental aspects. The alternatives should include a ?do nothing? alternative and best practicable environmental option (BPEO). Where a large number of alternatives are potentially open, methods used to systematically compare them include environmental benefit-cost analysis and multi-criteria evaluation (e.g. formulation of national energy or water policy). The BPEO helps clarify the environmental trade-offs that are at stake, and the basis for choice. Objectives-led SEA is critical for this purpose, and also can empower risk and benefit negotiation (e.g. to reduce NOx emissions as part of transport strategy).

43. Nine Steps to SEA III. Decision making: approve, reject or modify proposal Steps 7-8 7) Discuss with all stakeholders the alternative to prefer, with reason for decision 8) Motivate the (political) decision in writing On submission to the final decision-making body, a proposal can be approved, rejected or modified (e.g. as a result of condition-setting). When doing so, the decision-making body has a duty or obligation to take account of the results of an SEA, including public consultation. Despite adverse environmental impact, a policy, bill or plan often will be accepted because the economic and social benefits are considered to outweigh the impact. Reasons for decision should be issued, specifying the terms of approval and any follow up requirements On submission to the final decision-making body, a proposal can be approved, rejected or modified (e.g. as a result of condition-setting). When doing so, the decision-making body has a duty or obligation to take account of the results of an SEA, including public consultation. Despite adverse environmental impact, a policy, bill or plan often will be accepted because the economic and social benefits are considered to outweigh the impact. Reasons for decision should be issued, specifying the terms of approval and any follow up requirements

44. Nine Steps to SEA IV. Monitoring and audit: check to see if implementation is envt?ly sound & in accordance with approvals Step 9 9) Monitor the implementation and discuss the results Monitoring the implementation of a policy, bill or plan can be a simple check to see if environmental objectives are being met, or a systematic programme to measure its impact. Information tracking systems can be used to monitor issues and progress, and to focus and streamline any subsequent SEA or EIA process. Monitoring the implementation of a policy, bill or plan can be a simple check to see if environmental objectives are being met, or a systematic programme to measure its impact. Information tracking systems can be used to monitor issues and progress, and to focus and streamline any subsequent SEA or EIA process.


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