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1945 – 1991 The Cold War. Difference in Ideologies. Truman vs. Eisenhower. “Brinksmanship” [John Foster Dulles]. “ Containment” [George Kennan]. Mutual security agreements. Massive retaliation. M. A. D. “Domino Theory” CIA & covert operations Eisenhower Doctrine

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1945 1991 the cold war

1945 – 1991The Cold War



Truman vs. Eisenhower

“Brinksmanship”[John Foster Dulles]

“Containment”[George Kennan]

  • Mutual security agreements.

  • Massive retaliation.

  • M. A. D.

  • “Domino Theory”

  • CIA & covert operations

  • Eisenhower Doctrine

  • “$ Diplomacy” – Part II

  • Marshall Plan

  • Truman Doctrine

  • Berlin Airlift

  • NATO

  • NSC #68

  • Korean War


Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”

EUROPE:

  • 1955  Warsaw Pact created.

  • 1956  Hungarian Revolution.

  • 1958  Berlin Crisis.

  • 1959  Nixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate.”

  • 1960  U-2 Spy Incident


Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”

Middle East:

  • 1953  CIA sponsored coup in Iran

    • P. M. Mohammed Mossadegh  nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.

  • 1956  Suez Crisis.

  • 1958  Civil War in Lebanon


Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”

Latin America:

  • 1948  O. A. S. [Organization of American States] was created during Truman’s administration.

  • 1954  CIA covert ops. in Guatemala.

  • 1950s  Puerto Rican independence movement.

  • 1959  Castro’s Communist Revolution in Cuba.

  • 1961  Bay of Pigs invasion


Foreign Policy “Hot Spots”

Far East:

  • 1953  end of the Korean War.

  • 1954  French depart Indo-China.

    • Geneva Accords

  • 1964  China explodes its first atomic bomb [during LBJ’s administration].


The Cold War begins…USSR and other Communist ally states oppose the USA and endure conflicts across the globe.


The jfk assassination
The JFK Assassination

  • November 22, 1963 JFK is assassinated

  • Lyndon Johnson takes over as President


Leading causes of the korean war
Leading Causes of the Korean War

  • Stalin encouraged the spread of communism as long as it did not result in a war with America. He soon realized that nuclear war might be a possibility and wanted to avoid that and beat the USA using more indirect means.

  • The Creation of Eastern Bloc occurred at the end of WWII as most of Europe was divided into democratic or Communist spheres

  • The Domino Effect - Truman believed that if Korea fell to communism, Japan (a major trading partner) would follow.

  • The Truman Doctrine stated that the USA would lend aid to any country not wishing to be suppressed by the political ideals (communism) of any other country.

  • The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet communism

  • April 1950 the American National Security Council issued a report recommending direct involvement (a proxy war) against communism.

  • Stalin saw that the Korean War Was a chance for a war by proxy. Kim II Sung visited Stalin to persuade him that he could conquer South Korea.


This map is from an American magazine from 1950. This shows how much the US feared communism in the far east.


United nations
United Nations how much the US feared communism in the far east.

The United Nations now had to formulate a plan. Sixteen member states would provide troops under a United Nations Joint Command. It would fight with the South Korean army.

This United Nations force was dominated by America even to the extent of being commanded by an American general – Douglas MacArthur

On September 15th 1950, United Nations troops landed at Inchon. The landing was a huge success and the United Nations effectively cut the North Korean army in half and pushed them out of South Korea.

Note: MacArthur was later fired by Truman for getting the Chinese involved in the war.


Korean War how much the US feared communism in the far east.[1950-1953]

Kim Il-Sung

Syngman Rhee

“Domino Theory”


Soviet union
Soviet Union how much the US feared communism in the far east.

Soviets sold Chinese military equipment, including artillery and MIG fighter planes.

The USSR also provided advisers and military hardware to the North Koreans.

Soviet pilots flew MIGs against US planes.

However, Stalin was unwilling to become involved with the United States in a war over Korea.


United states
United States how much the US feared communism in the far east.

The US provided the majority of the UN military forces which drove the North Koreans out of South Korea and still stand guard along the border. The US moved their troops into South Korea quickly.

The US and the Soviets agreed to divide Korea temporarily to avoid long term decisions regarding Korea's future.

Although the United States took the lead in the Korean action, it did so under the order of the United Nations.


Results
Results how much the US feared communism in the far east.

  • There was an armistice signed by North Korea, China, and the UN but not by South Korea.

  • The armistice was NOT a peace treaty, just a temporary cessation of hostilities.


Modern korea
Modern Korea how much the US feared communism in the far east.

  • Korea is still split up into North Korea (communist) and South Korea (non-communist)

  • The border between the two countries has remained one of the most heavily-armed stretches of land on Earth


Winners losers
Winners? Losers? how much the US feared communism in the far east.

  • After three years, July 27, 1953- ceasefire stopped the fighting

  • Although there was no declared winner, South Korea never succumbed to a communist rule.


The cold war at home huac
The Cold War at Home - HUAC how much the US feared communism in the far east.

  • The Red Scare allowed for many people in America to be suspected of being communists.

  • Joseph McCarthy pun many Americans on trial under suspicion of being communists.

  • Many called this a witch hunt, similar to the events of the Salem witch hunt.


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