The History of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric cardiology and pediatric cardiac surgery have developed interdependently. CHD: Primordial heart?. FISH 1A+1V AMPHIBIA 2A+1V Snakes rudiment. VS REPTILES 2A+2V Turtles spongy VS
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Pediatric cardiology and
pediatric cardiac surgery
Marcello Malpighi—1661 Surgery
Anton van Leeuwenhoek—1674 Surgery
Antoine Lavoisier—1777 Surgery
"Surgery of the heart has probably reached the limits set by Nature to all surgery. No method, no new discovery, can overcome the natural difficulties that attend a wound of the heart."
Stephen Paget, 1896
The Surgery of the Chest
21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof.
22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. -- Genesis 2
Humphrey Davy--1800 Surgery
“As nitrous oxide in its extensive operation appears capable of destroying physical pain, it may probably be used with advantage during surgical operations…”
Crawford W. Long--1842 Surgery
William T.G. Morton--1846
But that life may in a manner of speaking be restored to the animal, an opening must be attempted in the trunk of the trachea, into which a tube of reed or cane should be put; you will then blow into this, so that the lung may rise again and the animal take in air. Andreas Vesalius, 1543
Von Frey and Gruber--1885
The more radical (important) the innovation, the greater the ridicule and vilification by colleagues
“I did not repeat the operation because I could not get another case. Although my patient made an uninterrupted recovery, the Physicians declared that it was all nonsense and in fact the operation was unjustified. In fact, it is on no use to be ahead of one’s time.”
* Early Palliation
* Elective Repair at ± 5 to 6 Years
* Primary Repair in Infancy
1983* Primary Repair in Neonates