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The Gender Profile of small holder Rural Agriculture Households in Tanzania
The list of Gender indicators
The snapshot of the Gender Profile in Tanzania
The DATA Collection Tools and improvements made for the 2007/08 Agriculture Sample Census Questionnaire
Conclusion and Recommendations
3. 1. Introduction In most developing countries there has been an increasing trend towards what is been termed as the 'feminization of agriculture'.
As men's participation in agriculture declines, the role of women in agricultural production becomes more dominant.
Involvements in high risk activities like mining, War, fishing, hunting, burglary, death from HIV/AIDS have reduced rural male populations.
migration of men from rural areas to towns and cities, in their own countries or abroad, in search of paid employment.
On the other hand; the division of labour and responsibilities between sexes in rural agrarian communities has been set
by various cultural, religious and sometimes political norms.
one of the sexes being disadvantaged in relation to access to natural resources, rural infrastructure, education, health and other services.
It is often women who are more disadvantaged than men
4. 4 Social relations i.e. how men and women are defined in the given context, in their normative roles, duties and responsibilities;
Activities i.e. the division of labour in both productive and reproductive work within the household and the community;
Access and control over resources, services, institutions of decision making and networks of power and authority; and
Needs, the distinct needs of men and women, both practical and strategic needs.
Gender analysis assumes that men and women differ in the goods and services they produce and in their degree of access to and control of resources.
The total number of agriculture households increased from 4,396,406 in 1997/1998 to 4,805,314 in 2002/2003, an increase of 8.5 percent over a 4 year period. There has been a larger increase in female headed households than male headed households (8% increase for male headed households and 14% for female headed households),
For the active agriculture population in Tanzania, the result show that, 49 percent are males compared to 51 percent females.
The illiteracy rate for male headed household is 21 percent compared to 51 percent for female headed households.
The majority of households ranked annual crop farming as their most important source of livelihood and there is little difference between male and female headed households.
A higher percent of female headed households rely on remittances compared to male headed households.
Slightly higher percent of female headed household members are involved in off farm income generating activities compared to male headed households (44 and 39% respectively)
Female headed households have a higher percent of children that are orphans 2.3% compared to male headed households 1.2%.
Male headed households have 1.1 hectares more land than female headed households
Very few male headed households (12%) have female land holders, whilst 50 percent of female headed households have female land holders. This means that female headed households either have male members that are holders or that female headed households do not have secure rights to land and further investigation is required to determine this.
11. Conclusion and Recommendations
Most of the gender analysis employed in analyzing the gender profile of small holder rural agriculture households in Tanzania, concentrated in identifying differences between male and female headed households and whilst large differences were detected in some variables, in most cases the differences were small or absent.
Future work on gender analysis of the agriculture sector should not only concentrate on the differences between male and female headed households but also on differences based on the percent or number of females within households as it may be that cultural norms are maintained more by male headed households than female headed households and that the disparity between males and females within a male headed households may be larger than in female headed households.