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[email protected] The principles used by AUTEC in granting ethical approval for research. Basic Values. A major problem within a multicultural and multivalent society: How do we decide what is ethical in a society in which there are many competing, and conflicting, systems of values?.

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ethical principles@aut

[email protected]

The principles used by AUTEC in granting ethical approval for research.

basic values
Basic Values

A major problem within a multicultural and multivalent society:

How do we decide what is ethical in a society in which there are many competing, and conflicting, systems of values?

basic values1
Basic Values

A basic set of values for social relationships in New Zealand are the three key principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, as defined by the courts and the Waitangi Tribunal:

  • Partnership
  • Participation
  • Protection
aotearoa s basic values
Aotearoa’s Basic Values

The next three slides show on the left the obligations as determined by the Courts and the Waitangi Tribunal under each principle for maintaining the social relationship between Maori and others in New Zealand, and on the right suggests how these may be used in building and maintaining ethical social relationships between researchers and participants

partnership
Between Maori and Others

A duty to act reasonably, honourably and in good faith

Mutual benefit

Reciprocity

Partnership

As a key value on which to build social relationships

Between researcher and participants

  • A duty to act reasonably, honourably and in good faith
  • Mutual benefit
  • Reciprocity
participation
Between Maori and Others

An equal status

The duty to consult

The right to self-management

The principle of mutual benefit

Participation

As a key value on which to build social relationships

Between researcher and participants

  • Participant vs subject
  • Voluntary
  • The right to stop participating
  • Mutual benefit
protection
Between Maori and Others

A duty of active protection:

Of language

Of Taonga

Of culture

Respect for Diversity

Protection

As a key value on which to build social relationships

Between researcher and participants

  • A duty of active protection:
    • From harm
    • From coercion
    • From deceit
  • Respect for Diversity
the following ethical principles are those chosen by autec to guide its decision making processes
The following ethical principles are those chosen by AUTEC to guide its decision making processes.
slide9

Please take the time to read the links on the following slides to sections of Applying for Ethics: Guidelines and Procedures as these contain AUTEC’s official statements about its principles and how it uses them.

slide10

The following slides also contain some tips based on issues arising from AUTEC’s previous consideration of applications. These are offered as additional assistance only and may not relate to your research.

autec identifies two categories of principles there are
AUTEC identifies two categories of principles. There are:
  • Seven Key Principles; and
  • Two Other Relevant Principles.
informed and voluntary consent
Informed and Voluntary Consent
  • Section 2.1 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
informed and voluntary consent1
Informed and Voluntary Consent
  • Allow people genuine choice as to whether they join or stay in the research;
  • Let people know everything that will be involved beforehand;
  • Avoid giving participants surprises;
informed and voluntary consent2
Informed and Voluntary Consent
  • Remember that you can only use information for the purpose for which it was given and inform people of all probable uses;
  • Ensure that information is given in appropriate language;
  • Always remember that by participating, people are helping you more than you are helping them.
respect for rights of privacy and confidentiality
Respect for rights of privacy and confidentiality
  • Section 2.2 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
respect for rights of privacy and confidentiality1
Respect for rights of privacy and confidentiality
  • Observe the Information Privacy Principles and the Privacy Act;
  • Keep the information safely secure;
  • Observe the Code of Health and Disability Users’ Rights;
  • Treat confidentially any information which is incidental to the research.
minimisation of risk
Minimisation of Risk
  • Section 2.3 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
minimisation of risk1
Minimisation of Risk
  • Try and evaluate risk from the participant’s point of view; your familiarity with your processes may reduce the level of risk that you associate with them.
  • Advise people beforehand about the possibility and probability of any risk;
minimisation of risk2
Minimisation of Risk
  • Avoid unnecessary risk of harm to other people, one’s self, and the University;
  • Have a contingency plan;
  • Ensure involvement of, or access to, appropriately skilled people.
truthfulness including limitation of deception
Truthfulness, including limitation of deception
  • Section 2.4 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
truthfulness including limitation of deception1
Truthfulness, including limitation of deception
  • Remember to do what you tell people you’re going to do;
  • If you need to change something, let people know what you’re changing and why;
  • Use deception only when there is no other way to gain the data and even then, limit its use as much as possible.
social and cultural sensitivity and commitment to the principles of the treaty of waitangi
Social and Cultural Sensitivity and Commitment to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.
  • Section 2.5 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
  • See also the appropriate Frequently Asked Questions article
social and cultural sensitivity and commitment to the principles of the treaty of waitangi1
Social and Cultural Sensitivity and Commitment to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.
  • Respect difference by acting differently;
  • Be aware that consultation is also part of the initial planning stage of research;
social and cultural sensitivity and commitment to the principles of the treaty of waitangi2
Social and Cultural Sensitivity and Commitment to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.
  • Be familiar with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi;
  • Communicate appropriately and politely.
research adequacy
Research Adequacy
  • Section 2.6 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
research adequacy1
Research Adequacy
  • Your research must have clear goals;
  • Your research method must enable these goals to be achieved;
  • Your research needs to be sufficiently significant to justify the participation of other people (remember to take your education into account when evaluating this factor).
avoidance of conflict of interest
Avoidance of Conflict of Interest
  • Section 2.7 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
avoidance of conflict of interest1
Avoidance of Conflict of Interest
  • It is preferable to invite people who are not in a dependant relationship to the researcher to participate in the research;
  • The role of funding is to enable the research, not to influence the research outcome;
  • Use appropriate means to prevent conflicts of interest arising, e.g. third party involvement etc.
respect for the vulnerability of some participants
Respect for the Vulnerability of Some Participants
  • Section 2.8 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
respect for the vulnerability of some participants1
Respect for the Vulnerability of Some Participants
  • People may be vulnerable because of their age, disability, health status or some other reason;
  • Be familiar with the difference between consent and assent and be sure to obtain both when applicable;
respect for the vulnerability of some participants2
Respect for the Vulnerability of Some Participants
  • Make the effort to be familiar with any special guidelines relating to particular groups to which people involved in your research belong.
respect for property including university property and intellectual property rights
Respect for Propertyincluding University property and intellectual property rights.
  • Section 2.9 of AUTEC’s Applying for Ethics Approval: Guidelines and Procedures
respect for property including university property and intellectual property rights1
Respect for Propertyincluding University property and intellectual property rights.
  • Be aware of and respect legal or culturally determined property rights;
  • Obtain the necessary permissions before using that which belongs to someone else;
  • Ensure that your research enhances the reputation of the University.
slide37

Ethical considerations apply from the start

“The beginning is the most important part of the work.”

Plato, The RepublicGreek author & philosopher in Athens (427 BC - 347 BC)

ethics lives in diversity
Ethics lives in Diversity
  • Many Values
  • Many Cultures
  • Legal and Social Responsibilities
for research to be ethical
For research to be ethical:
  • The goals of the research need to be ethical; and
  • The ways in which these goals are achieved need to be ethical; and
  • Both the goals and the ways in which they are achieved need to be seen to be ethical.
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