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Tuesday, 12/4 Agenda. Finish Doing Drugs Cyber-Crime, Terrorism Crimes of the Powerful Law Enforcement . Drug Control Strategies . “War on Drugs” = $600 Billion over past 25 years Source Control Interdiction Punishment (Deterrence) Drug Testing Different Approaches

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Tuesday, 12/4 Agenda

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Tuesday 12 4 agenda

Tuesday, 12/4 Agenda

Finish Doing Drugs

Cyber-Crime, Terrorism

Crimes of the Powerful

Law Enforcement


Drug control strategies

Drug Control Strategies

  • “War on Drugs” = $600 Billion over past 25 years

    • Source Control

    • Interdiction

    • Punishment (Deterrence)

    • Drug Testing

    • Different Approaches

    • Drug Education (non-D.A.R.E.)

    • Drug Treatment (California’s Prop 36)

    • Public Health-Harm Reduction Models

      • Methadone


Drug legalization

Drug Legalization?

  • Pro?

    • Reduce crime by eliminating “drug-defined crimes”

      • Reduce Prison Costs

    • Reduce violence generated by black market

    • Reduce police corruption (?)

  • Con?

    • Increased drug use and social costs

      • Before-After Dorito test

    • Moral costs

  • Practical Problems with Legalization

    • Which drugs? Who sells? Minors?


Drug treatment

Drug Treatment

  • As with criminal rehabilitation programs, cognitive behavioral programs have a track record of success

    • Cognitive = skill and restructuring

  • The effect of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous is largely unknown

    • Very resistant to academic research


Drug courts

Drug Courts

  • Started in 1989 in Dade County Florida as a reaction to crowded jails/court dockets

    • Spread like wildfire thereafter

  • Key ingredients

    • Team approach

    • Judicial involvement in supervision (court reviews)

    • Strong treatment component

    • Quick processing


Drug court ii

Drug Court II

  • Most research has been favorable

    • Reductions in drug use and other criminal activity

  • South St. Louis County (Duluth) MN drug court

    • Reviewed by one of the best bow hunting criminologists in the country

      • Significant reductions in felony offending vs. a comparison group of people arrested for drug felonies prior to the existence of drug court


Cyber crime

Cyber-Crime

  • Crime that occurs over the internet using a computer

    • Cyber markets

    • Fraud

    • Development of criminal communities


Cyber markets

Cyber-Markets

  • Piracy

    • Software, Music, Movies, Television Broadcasts, Books…

      • Requires minimal skill, but does entail some risks (viruses, lawsuits, etc.)

      • Estimates vary, but roughly 1/3 of Americans report pirating

      • Higher estimates among youth, especially COLLEGE KIDS!

        • UMD STUDENTS = 62% pirated in past year, 20% did so “frequently”

      • Music and video piracy appears to be declining…why?

  • Beyond pirating—use of legitimate (eBay, Craig's list) and illegitimate sites to engage in crime

    • Sell stolen goods, trade in illicit drugs/sex


Cyber pornography market

Cyber pornography market

  • Defining “pornography” has always been problematic

  • Other major issues

    • Access by Minors

    • Unwanted solicitation

    • Child pornography

  • Federal legislation has had limited success…

    • Communications Decency act of 1996

    • Child Online Protection Act (COPA) of 1998

    • Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) of 2000

      • Constitutional (Libraries get public funding)


Cyber fraud

Cyber Fraud

  • Traditional Fraud Scams

    • A friend from Nigeria wished to transfer a million dollars into your account

  • Phishing and Pharming scams

    • Your Ebay account has been compromised!

  • Hacking

  • Major concern with many of these techniques is identity theft

    • Use your information to take out loans, get credit cards, etc.


Identity theft

Identity Theft

  • The unlawful use of another person’s identifying information

    • Use of name, DOB, social security number, credit card number…to commit fraud or other crimes

    • Internet and information age has made this much easier


Combating identity theft

Combating Identity Theft

  • State Legislation

    • “Freeze laws” – stops access to credit reports

    • Laws to redact fraudulent transactions from credit reports

    • Disclosure laws—if your info has been compromised

  • New emphasis on information privacy

  • Risk minimization

    • Guard SS# and other private info, look at credit reports, shred sensitive paper, don’t open suspicious email…


Cybercrime communities

Cybercrime Communities

  • Anonymity of cyberspace

    • Deviant Subcultures have arena to share information and engage in crime

      • Child Pornography

      • Drug Distribution


Terrorism

Terrorism

  • Definitions Vary Widely

    • The use of violence to influence the political, social, or religious attitudes and/or behaviors of others

    • Premeditated, politically motivated violence, designed to spread fear and perpetrated against civilians


Start data

“START” DATA

  • National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism

    • University of Maryland

      • Convergence of several databases + new additions from media

    • What qualifies:

      • Intend to coerce/intimidate/convey message beyond immediate victims

      • Aimed at attaining political/social/religious goal

      • Context outside of legitimate warfare

    • Almost 100,000 terrorist incidents between 1970 and 2010

      • 43,000 bombings, 14,000 assassinations, and 4,700 kidnappings

        Interactive Chart


Thinking about terrorism

Thinking about Terrorism

  • Political/Secular vs. Religious

  • Organization and Support

  • Domestic Terrorism

  • Response to Terrorism


Political vs secular

Political vs. Secular

  • Motivations of terrorists

    • Those with political agenda may be more selective regarding civilian casualties

      • Logic = the non-believers are all enemies

  • HOWEVER, it is sometimes difficult to separate the religious from the secular

    • Osama Bin Laden and the 9/11 attacks had both a religious and political/secular component


Terrorist cells

Terrorist “Cells”

  • Cell Structure

    • Chain of command at the top (hierarchy), but operation in smaller, tightly kit “cells”

      • Cells independent of each other, somewhat autonomous

      • Cells have limited or no contact with leaders of terror group

    • Long history of use

      • Irish Republican Army


Types of terrorism

Types of Terrorism

  • Domestic terrorism

    • U.S.

      • Left Wing (Weathermen, Eco-Terrorism)

      • Right Wing (Militias, Timothy McVeigh)

  • State terrorism

    • Against domestic or foreign “enemies”

      • German atrocities against Jews circa WWII

      • Assassination of foreign leaders

  • International terrorism

    • Al-Qaeda


Terrorism and the media

Terrorism and the Media

  • Scholars have pointed out that there is a natural match

    • Terrorists depend on media

      • Use event to coerce larger audience: high visibility targets, graphic acts, pre-event contact with media outlets, post-event videos

    • Media as a natural venue for terrorism

      • Dramatic, violent, visual, timely (vs. wars which are protracted, highly complex…)

      • HIGH RATINGS


Response to terrorism

Response to Terrorism

  • Difficult balance

    • Aggressive response  detection, deterrence

    • Concern  civil rights, overreaching

  • Examples

    • USA Patriot Act

      • Warrantless search and seizures, wiretapping, etc.

    • Global War on Terror

      • Interrogation techniques, use of drones to assassinate, etc.


Crimes of the powerful

Crimes of the Powerful

  • Organized Crime

  • White Collar Crime

    • Occupational Crime

    • Corporate Crime


Organized crime

Organized Crime

  • Criminal activity committed by groups with some manner of formalized structure

    • Primary goal is typically money and power

  • Some ambiguity here

    • Street gangs versus drug cartels

    • Terrorist groups


Just how organized is it

Just how organized is it?

  • The Alien Conspiracy Model (foreign criminals)

    • Highly organized and centralized

    • Sicilian “Mafia” (La Cosa Nostra) as poster child

      • Mafia code (loyalty, respect, discipline), secret oaths, traditions, etc

  • Local, ethnic group model

    • Strong family ties and obligations related to kinship and ethnicity

      • Distrust of outsiders and government

      • Capacity for organization and cooperation among groups

      • Ability to cultivate good will of local residents

    • Influence limited to cities/geographical areas


Crimes of the organized

Crimes of the organized

  • Illegal Industries

    • Gambling, narcotics distribution, loan sharking, extortion, insurance scams, fencing…

    • Violence associated with enforcement

  • Legitimate industry

    • Used to launder money + create monopolies + extort

      • Restaurants/food, garbage disposal, garment manufacturing, labor unions, construction…

  • Political

    • Bribery, fixing elections, coercing agents of criminal justice, etc.


The mafia

The Mafia

  • Mafia is often used as general term

    • Usually refers to Italian Americans (Sicilian)

    • La Cosa Nostra (“our thing” in Italian)

      • Fodder for entertainment media (Sopranos, The Godfather, Goodfellas)

      • Famous New York crime families (Gambino, Genovese)

      • Joseph Valachi testimony (1963) before the Senate

        • The organization and crime families do exist, but the level of organization often exaggerated

    • Does “stand apart” because of its pervasiveness, control over illegitimate markets, and penetration into legitimate industry


Law enforcement methods

Law Enforcement Methods

  • Headhunting

    • Target heads of organized crime families, use informants + surveillance to indict

    • Successful?

      • Fairly successful at knocking off “heads” but still organized crime

  • Organized Crime Control Act (1970)

    • Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Statutes

    • Prosecutor ability to provide witness protection


White collar crime

White Collar Crime

  • Edwin Sutherland

    • “A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”

      • Urged criminologists to focus on crimes of the upper class, as opposed to street crime (still an issue today)

      • What is “counted” counts

        • Sutherland’s study of 70 largest corporations: official records revealed over 980 law violations (fraud, bribery, antitrust)

          • Much “War Profiteering”

      • A BIT better with NIBRS data, but nowhere near as good as “street crime” data


More recent typology of wcc

More recent typology of WCC

  • Occupational Crime

    • Crimes committed by individuals in the course of their occupation for personal gain

      • Theft/embezzlement, medical fraud by physicians, therapist having sex with client…

  • Corporate or Organizational Crime

    • Crimes committed by corporations (and their executives) for the benefit of the corporation

      • Organizations include small business and blue collar endeavors (auto repair shops)


Occupational crimes

Occupational Crimes

  • Employee embezzlement and pilferage

    • Collective embezzlement

      • Savings and Loans crime wave in the 1980s (land flips)

  • Professional Fraud

    • Lawyers, Physicians

      • How many hours to bill clients

      • Unnecessary procedures and surgeries, Medicaid/Medicare fraud


Organizational crime

Organizational Crime

  • Many organizational crimes are “blue collar”

    • Auto repair, appliance repair

      • 20/20 and 60 minutes stings

    • Fraudulent businesses (roofing, blacktop)

    • Small businesses


Corporate crime

Corporate Crime

  • Fraud, Cheating, Corruption

    • The Enron Scandal

      • Not alone—the most egregious of the 1990s/2000s era

        • Halliburton, WorldCom, Rite Aid, Adelphia…

      • Enron = cooking books to artificially inflate the value of their stocks (overstate earnings, hide losses), manipulation of California’s energy market to drive up costs

        • Accounting firm (Arthur Anderson) complicit the fraud

        • 31 people indicted (Jeff Skilling, Ken Lay)

    • The “Great Recession”?

      • Housing bubble (mortgage industry) + mortgage backed securities + bailout…


Corporate crime ii

Corporate Crime II

  • Other financial

    • Price Fixing / Collusion (gas prices)

    • False advertising (bait and switch)

  • Corporate Violence

    • Unsafe work conditions (miners, asbestos)

    • Unsafe products (contaminated food)

      • FORD PINTO CASE

      • PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY (Dalkon Shield)

    • Pollution


Cost of wcc

Cost of WCC

  • Cost MUCH higher than street crime

    • $17 billion vs. roughly $400 billion

    • 16,000 homicides vs. 100,000 unnecessary deaths


What causes wcc

What causes WCC?

  • Lenience?

    • Double standard embedded in culture—not “real” criminals

      • Weak/absent regulations –rely on “ethics” and self-regulation

      • Difficulty in proving crime (complex, good lawyers, lack resources to prosecute)

        • SEC  over 10 years, 600 cases referred for prosecution, and less than 1/3 resulted in convictions with less than 1/6 resulting in jail or prison time

      • Weak punishment  civil settlements with no admission of wrongdoing

        • Fines often less than 1% of corporate PROFITS for a year


Irony

Irony

  • Conservatives cry out for punishment for street crimes, but believe that much corporate “crime” can be cured by self-regulation

  • Liberals decry harsh punishment, especially for non-violent offenders, but believe that WCC could be reduced greatly through prison time

    • Corporations more “rational” than individuals?


Psycho corporations

Psycho Corporations

  • Psychopaths:

    • Insensitive, Manipulative, Superficial charm, Above-average intelligence, Absence of psychotic symptoms, Absence of anxiety, Lack of remorse, Failure to learn from experience, Egocentric, Lack of emotional depth

    • Corporations are not supposed to be compassionate or think of long-term consequences


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