Immunology elective mlim 101
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Immunology (elective) MLIM-101 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Lecture: 1. Immunology (elective) MLIM-101. Prepared by: Dr. Mohamed S. Abdel- Latif. INNATE ( NON-SPECIFIC ) IMMUNITY. Learning Outcome:. At this time you should know the following: 1. Differences between the non-specific and specific immune functions.

Download Presentation

Immunology (elective) MLIM-101

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Immunology elective mlim 101

Lecture: 1

Immunology (elective)MLIM-101

Prepared by:

Dr. Mohamed S. Abdel-Latif


Immunology elective mlim 101

INNATE ( NON-SPECIFIC ) IMMUNITY


Learning outcome

Learning Outcome:

At this time you should know the following:

1. Differences between the non-specific and specific immune functions.

2. Humoral components of the non-specific immune system and their action.

3. Cellular components of the non-specific immune function and their action.

4. Pathways of intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytes and their characteristic features.

5. Effect of humoral components such as interferon, TNF, IL-2, complement etc. on cellular components of the non-specific immune system.


Immunology elective mlim 101

"When the mind is ready,a teacher appears.“

Chinese Proverb


Development of the immune system

pl

neu

CD8+

CTL

ery

nk

CD4+

TH1

thy

TH2

mye

lym

Development of the Immune System


Immunology elective mlim 101

Myeloid cells

lymphoid cells

Granulocytic

Monocytic

T-cells

B-cells

Dendritic

cells?

Neutrophils

Macrophages

Helper

Cytotoxic

Basophils

Langerhans &

Plasma

Eosinophils

Kupffer cells

Suppressor

cells

Dendritic cells?

Cells of the Immune System


Immunology elective mlim 101

Nonspecific

Specific

Humoral

Cellular

Humoral

Cellular

complement, interferon, TNF etc.

macrophages, neutrophils

antibodies

T cells; other effectors cells

Components of the Immune System


Balance between infection and immunity

Bolus of infection x virulence

immunity

Balance between Infection and Immunity

infection

immunity

Disease =


Response to infection

infection

no disease

Innate immunity

no disease

re-infection

x

x

recovery

disease

Response to Infection

adaptive immunity


Significance of the immune system

Significance of the Immune System

  • Beneficial:

    • Protection from Invaders

    • Elimination of Altered Self

  • Detrimental:

    • Discomfort (inflammation)

    • Damage to self (autoimmunity)


Characteristics of innate and adaptive immunity

No Immunologic

memory

Innate Immunity

Adaptive Immunity

Characteristicsof Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Antigen independent

Antigen dependent

No time lag

A lag period

Not antigen specific

Antigen specific

  • Development

    of memory


Components of innate and adaptive immunity

Innate Immunity

Adaptive Immunity

Componentsof Innate and Adaptive Immunity

physical barriers

skin, gut Villi, lung cilia,etc

none

soluble factors

many protein and

non-protein secretions

Immunoglobulins

(antibody)

cells

phagocytes, NK cell eosinophils, K cells

T and B lymphocytes


Physical barriers to resistance

Physical Barriers to Resistance


Immunology elective mlim 101

SiteComponentFunctions

Skin

squamous cells

sweat

desquamation

flushing, fatty acids

GI tract

columnar cells

Peristalsis, low pH

bile salts, fatty acids

Lung

mucociliary elevator

surfactants

tracheal cilia

Effector mechanisms in Innate Immunity -1


Immunology elective mlim 101

SiteComponentFunctions

Effector mechanisms in Innate Immunity -2

Nasopharynx

and eye

mucus, saliva, tears

flushing, lysozyme

Phagocytes

phagocytosis and intracellular killing

Blood and

Lymphiod

organs

K, NK & LAK cells

direct and antibody dependent cytolysis


Immunology elective mlim 101

SiteComponentFunctions

Effector mechanisms in Innate Immunity -3

Serum and other serous fluids

lactoferrin, transferrin

iron deprivation

interferons, TNF-

antiviral proteins phagocyte activation

lysozyme

peptidoglycan hydrolysis

opsonization, enhanced phagocytosis, inflammation

Fibronectin & complement


Phagocytes are the most important cells

George Bernard Shaw wrote:

“There is at bottom only one genuine treatment for all diseases,…to stimulate the phagocytes. Drugs are a delusion. …(when) the phagocytes are stimulated; they devour the disease…”

Influenced by

the work of

Eli Metchnikoff,

Phagocytes are the Most Important Cells


Phagocytes macrophages

Phagocytes:Macrophages

  • phagocytosis, intracellular and extra-cellular killing, tissue repair, antigen presentation for specific immune response

  • characteristic nucleus and CD14 membrane marker.


Characteristics of neutrophil granules

Characteristics of Neutrophil Granules

primary granules

secondary granules

azurophilic; characteristic of young neutrophils;

specific for mature neutrophils

contain cationic proteins, lysozyme, defensins, proteases and

myeloperoxidase

contain lysozyme, NADPH oxidase, lactoferrinand B12-binding protein


Phagocyte response to infection

Phagocyte Response to Infection

  • The SOS Signals

    • N-formyl methionine

    • Clotting system peptides

    • Complement products

  • Phagocyte response

    • Vascular adherence

    • Diapedesis

    • Chemotaxis

    • Activation

    • Phagocytosis and killing


Initiation of phagocytosis

ScavengerR

IgG FcR

CR

Toll-like R

Initiation of Phagocytosis

Attachment via


Respiratory burst

Glucose +NADP+

G-6-P-dehydrogenase

Pentose-P

+ NADPH

NADPH + O2

Cytochrome b558

NADP++ O2-

2O2- + 2H+

Superoxide dismutase

H2O2 + 1O2

2O2- + H2O2

.OH + OH- + 1O2

Respiratory Burst

Oxygen Dependent Myeloperoxidase Independent Reactions


Respiratory burst1

H2 O2 + Cl-

myeloperoxidase

OCl- + H2O

1O2-+Cl-+ H2O

2OCL- + H2O

2O2- + 2H+

Superoxide dismutase

H2O2 + O2-

2 H2 O2

catalase

H2O + O2-

Respiratory Burst

Oxygen Dependent Myeloperoxidase dependent reactions


Pathways of intracellular killing

Pathways of Intracellular Killing


Mediators of oxygen independent killing in the phago lysosome

Mediators of Oxygen Independent Killing in the Phago-lysosome

Effector Molecule

Function

Cationic proteins (cathepsin)

Damage to microbial membranes

Lysozyme

Hydrolyses mucopeptides in the cell wall

Lactoferrin

Deprives pathogens of iron

Hydrolytic enzymes (proteases)

Digests killed organisms


Nitric oxide dependent killing

IFNγ

TNF

TNF

Nitric Oxide

Nitric Oxide

Nitric Oxide Dependent Killing


Non specific killer cells

NK and LAK cells

ADCC (K) cell

Activated

macrophages

Eosinophils

They all kill foreign and altered self targets

Non-specific Killer Cells


Natural killer nk cells

also known as large granular lymphocytes (LGL)

kill infected and malignant cells

are identified by the presence of CD56 & CD16 and absence of CD3

activated by IL2 and IFN-γto become LAK cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells


Lymphokine activated killer lak cell

kills malignant cells

kills transformed and malignant cells

Lymphokine Activated Killer (LAK) cell

IFN

IFN

IL2

IL2


Regulation of nk cell function

Regulation of NK Cell Function


K cells

K Cells

  • morphologically undefined

  • have IgG Fc receptor

  • recognize antibody coated targets

  • could be NK cells (IgG), macrophages (IgG), eosinophils (IgE) or other cells (IgG)


Immunology elective mlim 101

Assignment:

As a part of the semester activity, group of students is selected every week to prepare a short seminar about his/her point of interest in one of the lecture topics. That to be discussed and evaluated during the next lecture.


  • Login