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Chapter 9: Performance Leadership. Performance Standards Essentials of Performance Evaluation Making the Evaluation The Appraisal Interview Follow-Up Legal Aspects of Performance Evaluation. Performance Standards. Each performance standard states 3 things about each unit of the job:

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Chapter 9 performance leadership l.jpg
Chapter 9: Performance Leadership

  • Performance Standards

  • Essentials of Performance Evaluation

  • Making the Evaluation

  • The Appraisal Interview

  • Follow-Up

  • Legal Aspects of Performance Evaluation


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Performance Standards

  • Each performance standard states 3 things about each unit of the job:

    • What the employee is to do.

    • How it is to be done.

    • To what extent it is to be done (how much, how well, how soon).

  • Job descriptions are often used in recruiting, evaluating applicants, & training.

    • They are also useful in assigning work, evaluating performance, & deciding on disciplinary action.


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Performance Standards

  • If you develop a full set of performance standards for each job classification you:

    • have the basis for a management system for your people & the work they do.

    • can use them to describe the jobs, to define the day’s work for each job, & to train employee’s.

    • can use them as a basis for rewarding achievement.

    • can use them as diagnostic tools to pinpoint ineffective performance.

    • can use them in disciplining workers.


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Performance Standards:In Recruiting & Hiring

  • Defines the job.

  • Aids in planning & forecasting.

  • Provides a method of testing skills.

  • Defines a day’s work.


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Performance Standards: In Training

  • Provides blueprints for a training program.

  • Sets a competency standard for job performance.


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Performance Standards: Evaluating Performance

  • Provides an objective evaluation method.

  • Pinpoints needs for improvement.

  • Identifies superior workers.


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Performance Standards: In Your Job & Career

  • Helps you to develop managerial skills.

  • Reduces crisis management.

  • Provides time for true management.


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Setting up a Performance Standard System3 Essentials for Success:

1. Employee participation: better results, commitment, & morale.

2. Active supervisory leadership & assistance throughout: be in charge at all times but, work together.

3. Built in reward system: rewards linked to how well each worker meets the performance standards.


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Defining the Purpose

  • The first step is to define the purpose for which standards will be used.

  • This should define a day’s work, set standards, develop training programs, & evaluate on the job performance.


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Analyzing the Job

  • The next step is to analyze the job & break it down into units.

  • You & your crew identify units of work that are performed.

  • List in order of performance all the tasks in the units-rate them according to value.

  • Sometimes it is appropriate to define the 3 levels of performance:

    1. Optimistic

    2. Realistic

    3. Minimum


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Writing the Performance Standards

  • Be specific, clear, complete,& accurate.

  • Be measurable & observable.

  • Be attainable.

  • Conform to company policies, goals, legal & moral restraints.

  • Certain kinds of standards must have time limits set for achievement.


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Developing Standard Procedures

  • The next step is to develop standard procedures.

  • These state what a person must do to achieve the results, they give spelled out instructions for the action.

  • Functions:

    • To standardize procedures you want followed.

    • To provide a basis for training.

  • Do not:

    • Get carried away on detail.

    • Make rigid rules when there is a choice on ho things can be done.


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Training Standards

  • A training program should have a training objective for each standard.

  • Training objective:a trainers’ goal- a statement, in performance terms, of the behavior that shows when training is complete.


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Evaluating on the Job Performance

  • The first evaluation is a test of both the workers & the system.

  • If the workers meets all the standards- rewards are in order.

  • This also indicates that standards & procedures are suitable & workable.


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Implementing a Performance Standard System

  • Keys to making it work:

    • Workers’ cooperation.

    • Gradual implementation.

    • An award or incentive system.

    • Recognition & use of workers potential.

    • Periodic review.


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How a Performance Standard System Can Fail

  • The standards are not clearly stated & communicated.

  • The supervisor is doing a poor job.

  • The supervisor neglects various follow up elements.

  • Employees find no challenges or rewards.

  • The supervisor becomes to pre-occupied with maintaining the system.

  • The system is administered in a negative way.


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Essentials of Performance Evaluation

  • Performance evaluation:

    • A periodic review & assessment of each employee’s performance during a given period.

    • Are not always used for hourly workers in the hospitality industry (lack of time, workers do not stay long enough, etc.).

    • Does not substitute in any way a informal evaluation.


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Purpose & Benefits

  • To evaluate & give recognition.

  • Get different perspectives by looking back over a long period of time.

  • Documentation for the record.

  • Let people know how thy are doing.

  • Set improvement goals.

  • Basis for salary increase.

  • Identify workers for potential advancement.

  • May be used by other managers.

  • May be used by your boss to rate you/ provides feedback on your hiring & training.

  • Provides a occasion to get feedback from employees.


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Steps in the Performance Review Process

1. Prepare for the evaluation.

2. Making the evaluation.

3. Sharing it with the worker.

4. Providing a follow up.


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Making the Evaluation

  • Evaluations are typically formalized in an evaluation form.

  • This form lists performance dimensions or categories in measurable or observable terms.

  • Dimensions should be related to the job, & clearly defined in objective & observable terms.


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Standards & Ratings

  • There should be measurable or observable standards, wherever possible to make evaluation more objective.

  • Many evaluation forms use a rating scaleranging from outstanding to unsatisfactory performance.

    • A common scale includes ratings of outstanding, above average, average, needs improvement, & poor.

    • The major problem with ratings such as outstanding or excellent is figuring out what they mean in performance terms.

    • The more precise these descriptions are, the fairer & more objective the ratings will be (i.e. point values).

    • No evaluation form solves all the problems of fairness & objectivity.


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Pitfalls in Rating Performance

  • Form itself

  • Halo effect

  • Letting feeling bias judgment

  • Comparing one person to another

  • Supervisors feelings about evaluation process affects ratings

  • Concern about consequences

  • Procrastination

  • Supervisor gives ratings for the effect they will have

  • Rating employees on most recent performance


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Defense Against Pitfalls

  • Evaluate performance, not the employee.

  • Give specific examples.

  • Where there is substandard performance ask WHY?

    • Use the rule of finger.

  • Think fair & consistent.

  • Get others input.

  • Write down ideas & discuss with the employee how to improve performance.


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Employee Self Appraisal

  • Employees evaluate themselves.

  • May result in less employee defensiveness.

  • May result in a more constructive performance appraisal interview.

  • May improve motivation & job performance.


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The Appraisal Interview

  • A private face to face session between you & your employee.

  • Plan:

    • Pick a place free of interruption at an appropriate time, review the evaluation, & keep in mind your goal of a positive climate of communication & problem solving.


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Conducting the Interview

  • Start off with small talk.

  • Make sure the employee understands the evaluation process.

  • Ask the employee to rate their performance.

  • Encourage the employee to comment on your judgments.

  • Get the employee to do most of the talking.

  • Work with them on setting improvement objectives.

  • Summarize the interview, end on a positive note.


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Common Mistakes in Appraisal Interviews

  • Authoritarian approach

  • Tell & sell approach

  • Criticizing & dwelling on past mistakes

  • Failing to listen-arguing- interrupting

  • Losing control- letting emotions take over

  • Reducing standards for one person


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Follow-Up

  • 1st see that people receive the rewards they have coming to them.

  • For people you have discovered need more training, arrange to provide it for them.

  • For people you feel will improve themselves, follow their progress discreetly.

  • There will be people who you are sure will make no attempt to improve, who will continue to get by with minimum performance, reassess them in your mind.

  • There are 2 important facets of follow-up.

    • Actually carrying it out.

    • Use all you have discovered about your people & yourself to improve your working relationship with each person you supervise.


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Legal Aspects of Performance Evaluation

  • EEO laws effecting performance evaluation include:

    • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

    • Equal Pay Act

    • Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    • Americans with Disabilities Act


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Fair & Legal Evaluations

  • Evaluations should be based on standards obtained from job analysis.

  • Use objective, observable, & measurable performance standards.

  • Keep a positive rapport during the interview.

  • Do not discuss qualities of employee based on a membership of a group.

  • Document frequently.

  • Employees should be given a way to appeal.

© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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