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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: PERCEPTION. Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior. Organizational Processes. The Individual. THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT. Group behavior and work teams Intergroup conflict and negotiations Organizational power and politics Communication. Skills & Abilities

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior

Organizational Processes

The Individual

THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT

  • Group behavior and work teams
  • Intergroup conflict and negotiations
  • Organizational power and politics
  • Communication
  • Skills & Abilities
  • Perception
  • Personality
  • Attitudes
  • Values
  • Leadership
  • Communications
  • Decision making
  • Reward System
  • Job Design

INDIVIDUAL

BEHAVIOR IN THE

ORGANIZATION

slide3
First law of human behavior:
    • “People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.”
  • Caveat
perception
Perception
  • Perception is the process by which individuals make sense of their world.
  • Individuals organize and interpret information from their environments using perceptual filters
    • personality, psychology, experience, preferences, beliefs-based differences
  • Objective vs. perceived realities
perception1
Perception
  • People perceive the world uniquely
  • Differences in perceptions can cause problems
    • Communication
    • Conflict
    • Motivation
    • Judgment
    • Decision Making
object perception
Object Perception

Proximity – things close together are seen as belonging

together.

object perception1
Object Perception

Figure-Ground:

The figure and the

background “switch”

social perception
Social Perception

How we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior, moods, motives, and traits

Similar to object perception, but

  • People are more dynamic than objects
  • We’re trying to figure out intentions, motives, and causes of behavior
attribution
Attribution

Why did they do that?

  • internal causes
    • traits
    • skills
    • abilities
  • external causes
    • situational constraints
slide10

4 attributions for the cause

of performance

Stable

Unstable

Internal

External

how do we determine cause kelley
How do we determine cause? (Kelley)
  • Consensus - how do others behave
  • Consistency - this person on other occasions
  • Distinctiveness - this person in other situations
errors biases in social perception
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception
  • Selective perception
    • notice stimuli which are salient due to our interests, background, experiences
  • Closure
    • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing
    • Assume what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know
errors biases in social perception1
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception
  • Halo Effects
    • Impression on one dimension affects impression of unrelated dimension
  • Contrast
  • Stereotyping
    • A person has beliefs about a class of stimulus objects and generalizes those beliefs to encounters with members of that class of objects.
  • Primacy/Recency effects
    • Disproportionately high weight is given to the first/last information obtained about a stimulus
first impressions
First Impressions
  • Influences what subsequent information we notice and how it is interpreted
  • “Fill-in” information consistent with first impression
  • Anchoring
    • Failure to adjust for subsequent information
  • Confirmation Bias
    • Seek out information & perceive stimuli in ways that confirm expectations
    • Discount contradictory information
  • Self fulfilling prophecy (2-way)
  • Recency—availability bias
errors biases in social perception2
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception
  • Actor-observer difference (aka “the fundamental attribution error”)
    • Actors attribute their behavior to external causes
    • Observer attribute actors’ behavior to internal cause
errors biases in social perception3
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
    • The tendency to attribute others\' bad performance to internal causes &
    • Attribute their good performance to external causes
errors biases in social perception4
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception
  • Self-serving bias
    • attribute successes to ourselves - internal
    • attribute failures to the environment – external
guard against specific biases
Guard against specific biases
  • Stereotypes
    • Be aware that stereotyping can occur with very little information, remain open to new information
    • Recognize that stereotypes rarely apply to a specific individual
  • Fundamental attribution error?
  • Primacy/recency?
  • Halo?
  • Confirmation?
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