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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: PERCEPTION. Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior. Organizational Processes. The Individual. THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT. Group behavior and work teams Intergroup conflict and negotiations Organizational power and politics Communication. Skills & Abilities

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Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior

Organizational Processes

The Individual

THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT

  • Group behavior and work teams

  • Intergroup conflict and negotiations

  • Organizational power and politics

  • Communication

  • Skills & Abilities

  • Perception

  • Personality

  • Attitudes

  • Values

  • Leadership

  • Communications

  • Decision making

  • Reward System

  • Job Design

INDIVIDUAL

BEHAVIOR IN THE

ORGANIZATION



Perception
Perception

  • Perception is the process by which individuals make sense of their world.

  • Individuals organize and interpret information from their environments using perceptual filters

    • personality, psychology, experience, preferences, beliefs-based differences

  • Objective vs. perceived realities


Perception1
Perception

  • People perceive the world uniquely

  • Differences in perceptions can cause problems

    • Communication

    • Conflict

    • Motivation

    • Judgment

    • Decision Making


Object perception
Object Perception

Proximity – things close together are seen as belonging

together.


Object perception1
Object Perception

Figure-Ground:

The figure and the

background “switch”


Social perception
Social Perception

How we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior, moods, motives, and traits

Similar to object perception, but

  • People are more dynamic than objects

  • We’re trying to figure out intentions, motives, and causes of behavior


Attribution
Attribution

Why did they do that?

  • internal causes

    • traits

    • skills

    • abilities

  • external causes

    • situational constraints


4 attributions for the cause

of performance

Stable

Unstable

Internal

External


How do we determine cause kelley
How do we determine cause? (Kelley)

  • Consensus - how do others behave

  • Consistency - this person on other occasions

  • Distinctiveness - this person in other situations


Errors biases in social perception
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception

  • Selective perception

    • notice stimuli which are salient due to our interests, background, experiences

  • Closure

    • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing

    • Assume what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know


Errors biases in social perception1
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception

  • Halo Effects

    • Impression on one dimension affects impression of unrelated dimension

  • Contrast

  • Stereotyping

    • A person has beliefs about a class of stimulus objects and generalizes those beliefs to encounters with members of that class of objects.

  • Primacy/Recency effects

    • Disproportionately high weight is given to the first/last information obtained about a stimulus


First impressions
First Impressions

  • Influences what subsequent information we notice and how it is interpreted

  • “Fill-in” information consistent with first impression

  • Anchoring

    • Failure to adjust for subsequent information

  • Confirmation Bias

    • Seek out information & perceive stimuli in ways that confirm expectations

    • Discount contradictory information

  • Self fulfilling prophecy (2-way)

  • Recency—availability bias


Errors biases in social perception2
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception

  • Actor-observer difference (aka “the fundamental attribution error”)

    • Actors attribute their behavior to external causes

    • Observer attribute actors’ behavior to internal cause


Errors biases in social perception3
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception

  • Fundamental Attribution Error

    • The tendency to attribute others' bad performance to internal causes &

    • Attribute their good performance to external causes


Errors biases in social perception4
Errors/Biasesin Social Perception

  • Self-serving bias

    • attribute successes to ourselves - internal

    • attribute failures to the environment – external




Guard against specific biases
Guard against specific biases

  • Stereotypes

    • Be aware that stereotyping can occur with very little information, remain open to new information

    • Recognize that stereotypes rarely apply to a specific individual

  • Fundamental attribution error?

  • Primacy/recency?

  • Halo?

  • Confirmation?



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