Buddhist teachings. The 3 Marks of Existence. In Hinduism, the goal is to be liberated from Samsara and become one with Brahman- the ultimate reality. The Buddha discovered something else: no self. Everything, within and without, is changing
Anicca means impermanence
It focuses on the idea that existence is constantly changing
Life is a constant change
Nothing we experience in life ever remains the same
We get used to things – our own face, family, friends, house, car, neighborhood- that seem to remain the same but that is an illusion for they are changing daily
E.g. a river
We may perceive the river as a real and unchanging thing, but actually it is an ongoing flow, a constant sequence of change.
The same occurs to the self: it appears to be real and unchanging, but in fact it is an ongoing flow
The 4 noble truths are the creed for Buddhism
The 4 noble truths lead to liberation/nirvana
During the Third Watch of the night of his enlightenment Gautama perceived the Four Noble Truths:
To live is to suffer
Suffering is caused by desire
Suffering can be brought to cessation
The solution to suffering is the Noble Eight-fold path
Karma in Buddhist world:
The moral law of cause and effect
It functions hand in hand with samsara
The nature of one’s rebirth depends on the status of one’s karma
Because Buddhism denies the transference of any self or soul, personal identity depends entirely on karma.
When an individual dies, his or her karma continues on its particular trajectory, as it were, bringing about rebirth.
At conception the new person is possessed of this particular status brought on by the karma of the previous life.
Because karma is affected by the moral adequacy of one’s actions, morality is of pressing concern for Buddhism.
The moral life requires observance of the Five Precepts:
Do not take life
Do not take what is not given
Do not engage in sensuous misconduct
Do not use false speech
Do not drink intoxicants
The five precepts apply to all Buddhists.
The following precepts are added for monks and nuns:
6. Do not eat after noon (12:00)
7. Do not watch dancing or shows
8. Do not use garlands, perfumes, or ornaments.
9. Do not use a high or soft bed.
10. Do not accept gold or silver.
So, if you follow the 8-fold path, and you end all desires, then what?
Nirvana literally means “blowing out” (ie like a candle). Nirvana happens when all desires stop.
No desires = No more Karma
No Karma = No more re-birth.
An arhat is someone who has attained enlightenment but has not died yet
The Buddha was an arhat
Arhats are considered saints