Motivation at work chapter 9
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Motivation at Work Chapter 9. Introduction. This lecture will: - Evaluate the nature of motivation Critically evaluate theories of motivation, including content and process theories Examine sociological theories of motivation including alienation, culture and work orientation

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Motivation at Work Chapter 9

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Motivation at work chapter 9

Motivation at Work

Chapter 9


Introduction

Introduction

This lecture will:

-Evaluate the nature of motivation

Critically evaluate theories of motivation, including content and process theories

Examine sociological theories of motivation including alienation, culture and work orientation

Examine the application of theories of motivation in the workplace, and the issue of social class


The nature of work motivation

The Nature of Work Motivation

Motivation is a cognitive decision making process that influences the persistence and direction of goal directed behaviour:

The focus of the literature is prescriptive, indicating a set of precepts or models of behaviour

Motivation relates to organizational goals

Motivation can be assessed in terms of quality of output

Motivators can be intrinsic or extrinsic

an example of an intrinsic motivator relates to self-esteemor the desire to do something

an example of an extrinsic motivator is reward


Figure 9 1 examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators

Figure 9.1 - Examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators


Theories of work motivation

Theories of Work Motivation

Theories can be categorized as ‘content’ or ‘process’ theories of motivation

Content theories relate to built-in needs or motivators and include:

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Alderfer’s ERG theory

McClelland’s six basic needs

Process theories relate to conscious choices that lead to a specific type of work behaviour and include:

Equity theory

Expectancy theory


Content theories

Content Theories

Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs proposes that we have a set of built-in needs

Basic needs are addressed first, then more advanced ones

In practical terms the reconfiguration of work structures to give more empowerment can be seen as offering self-actualization

Altderfer’s (1972) ERG Theory divides needs into three categories: Existence (E); Relatedness (R); Growth (G)

Unlike Maslow, it is suggested that all levels are important at the same time

McClelland (1961) suggests the need to satisfy six basic human needs: achievement, power, affiliation, independence, self-esteem and security


Figure 9 2 maslow s hierarchy of needs

Figure 9.2 - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


Figure 9 3 comparison of maslow s need hierarchy and altderfer s erg theory

Figure 9.3 - Comparison of Maslow’s need hierarchy and Altderfer’s ERG theory


Figure 9 4 employee needs personality and work behaviour

Figure 9.4 - Employee Needs, Personality and Work Behaviour

Arnold and Bosnoff have created a variant of Altderfer’s model to suggest that employee satisfaction creates a positive effect relative to self-esteem and job importance


Process theories 1 equity theory

Process Theories (1) – Equity theory

Equity Theory is based on a comparison of the ratio between employee input into a task and output (rewards)

Inequity is unpleasant and can motivate changes in behaviour

Adams made statements about the ratio of equity to inequity

Contemporary systems of reward management and performance-related pay represent the influence of equity in the workplace


Figure 9 5 adam s conditions of equity and inequity

Figure 9.5 - Adam’s Conditions of Equity and Inequity


Process theories 2 expectancy theory

Process theories (2) - Expectancy Theory

Developed by Vroom, this theory looks at the relationship of levels of output and desirable reward and between effort and performance:

Effort-Performance Expectancy (E P)

Performance-Outcome Expectancy (P O)

The Attractiveness or valence of the outcomes (V)

This can be represented by the equation:

Effort = E ΣI x V

According to this theory, employees choose the course of action with highest rewards – this is deemed a rational expectation


Figure 9 6 sample expectancy theory calculations

Figure 9.6 – Sample expectancy theory calculations

  • A further expectancy theory was developed by Porter and Lawlor:

    • This incorporates prior experience, communication, and attractiveness of particular outcomes into the expectancy calculations

    • It refines the idea of pay as a reward, attaching more value to the perception of equity


Process theories 3 goal setting theory

Process Theories (3) – Goal-setting theory

Goal setting theory assumes positive motivational consequences for employees can be achieved by setting goals in participation:

This approach is linked to Management by Objectives

It is widely adopted in non-unionized workplaces


The sociology of motivation

The Sociology of Motivation

Sociologists have developed micro-level and macro-level approaches to investigate and understand worker behaviour at the workplace

Three such approaches are:

Alienation

Culture

Work orientation


Alienation

Alienation

  • Can be viewed broadly as a condition of objective powerlessness

  • Is derived from Marx’s theories – workers are alienated from:

    • The products of their labour

    • The act of production

    • Social relations

  • Blauner extended the theory in 1964 – he said that there were four dimensions to alienation:

    • Powerlessness

    • Meaninglessness

    • Isolation

    • Self-estrangement

  • The Division of Labour and contemporary movements like Taylorism, are said to alienate...


Culture

Culture

Culture can be manifested through physical structures, artefacts, and language

It is unique to the group that constitutes the organization and its shared values (Schein)

Culture can:

Operate as a mode of control (a Holy Grail theory)

Be the basis of expectancy theories of organization

Act as the organizational glue through shared ritual and ceremony

Create a shared identity


Work orientation

Work Orientation

Work orientation investigates:

The meaning that individuals give to their paid work

The relative importance and function they assign to work within their lives as a whole

Goldthorpe looked at the importance of the cash nexus and high level goals relative to the car industry in the 1960s

Controversy attends the issue of motivants relative to gender

It is arguable that men attach more significance to intrinsic rewards in low level employment while women have more social needs

Advancement or bureaucratic orientation can be contrasted with instrumental work motivation (Goldthorpe, 1968)


Figure 9 7 integrating the approaches

Figure 9.7 - Integrating the Approaches

This is a mix of the culture and work orientation models, complemented by the psychologically driven theory of work motivation

Integrating the Approaches


Applying motivation theories 1

Applying Motivation Theories (1)

A pragmatic approach is needed, which links in with areas like HR practice and leadership styles

Distinct types of worker activity will require a fine-tuning of particular theories. This can include:

Different strategies for workers of the core as opposed to the periphery

Different strategies for knowledge workers as opposed to more routine workers

Of course, this raises questions about managerialism and the fairness of particular practices


Table 9 1 most popular most highly effective and least effective strategies for knowledge workers

Table 9.1 - Most Popular, most highly effective and least effective strategies for Knowledge Workers


Reward design job design leadership style

Reward Design, Job Design & Leadership Style

Reward design should ensure that employees are given rewards that they value

This relates to aspects of extrinsic motivation and to expectancy and equity theories

Job design should provide a good fit with employee values and abilities

Core characteristics to consider are skill variety, task identity and task significance

Perception of reward etc varies with different types of workers and gender

Leadership style is an important feature of motivation:

Autonomy suits knowledge workers

Note the acronym SMART in relation to goals set

Trust and participation leads to commitment and is encouraged by the promotion of fairness and equity in the workplace


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