The papacy
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

The Papacy PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 175 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Papacy. “Always be prepared to make a defense to anyone who calls you to account for the hope that is in you, yet do it with gentleness and reverence…(1 Peter 3:15-16).”. Outline. The Papacy in Scripture Peter in Rome Primacy of Peter in Early Church Writings Position of the Pope today.

Download Presentation

The Papacy

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The papacy

The Papacy

“Always be prepared to make a defense to anyone who calls you to account for the hope that is in you, yet do it with gentleness and reverence…(1 Peter 3:15-16).”


Outline

Outline

  • The Papacy in Scripture

  • Peter in Rome

  • Primacy of Peter in Early Church Writings

  • Position of the Pope today


Jesus changes simon s name to peter

Jesus Changes Simon’s name to Peter

  • “Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who heard John and followed Jesus. He first found his own brother Simon and told him, "We have found the Messiah" (which is translated Anointed). Then he brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, "You are Simon the son of John; you will be called Cephas" (which is translated Peter).”- John 1:40-42


What s in a name change

What’s in a name change?

  • Names were very significant in Jewish society.

  • In the Torah and in Jewish Tradition, a name change meant a change in status.

  • Genesis 17:5

    • Abram changed to Abraham

  • Genesis 32:28

    • Jacob changed to Israel


First among the apostles

First Among the Apostles

  • “The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon called Peter, and his brother Andrew; James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John; Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James, the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus; Simon the Cananean, and Judas Iscariot who betrayed him.” – Matthew 10:2-4


Keys to the kingdom

Keys to the Kingdom

  • “When Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” They replied, "Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter said in reply, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” Jesus said to him in reply, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father. And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” – Matthew 16:13-19


Peter as the foundation

Peter as the Foundation

  • “For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father.”

    • Divine Revelation

    • God chose to make revelation to Peter alone

  • “…you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church.”

    • Πέτρος = Petros

    • Πέτρά = petra

    • Kepha in Aramaic


The keys

The Keys

  • The keys entrusted to a man have always represented the delegation of authority.

  • The Gospel of Matthew was written primarily for Jews. Every educated Jew who read Matthew 16 would immediately associate the appointment of Peter with Isaiah 22.

  • “I will clothe him with your robe, and gird him with your sash, and give over to him your authority. He shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. I will place the key of the House of David on his shoulder; when he opens, no one shall shut, when he shuts, no one shall open.” – Isaiah 22:21-22

  • In Isaiah 22, the king’s steward carried the keys of authority as a vice regent of the king and exercised the king’s own authority.


Jesus speaking to peter after the resurrection

Jesus speaking to Peter after the Resurrection

  • When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs.“ He then said to him a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep.“ He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, "Do you love me?" and he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." (Jesus) said to him, "Feed my sheep. Amen, amen, I say to you, when you were younger, you used to dress yourself and go where you wanted; but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go.“ – John 21:15-18


Feed my sheep

Feed My Sheep

  • The word feed figuratively means to teach and promote in every way the spiritual welfare of the members of the Church.

  • The second word, tend, figuratively means to govern or rule.

  • Jesus appoints Peter the universal shepherd of his whole flock.


Acts of the apostles

Acts of the Apostles

  • Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a sabbath day's journey away. When they entered the city they went to the upper room where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James. All these devoted themselves with one accord to prayer, together with some women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers. During those days Peter stood up in the midst of the brothers (there was a group of about one hundred and twenty persons in the one place). He said, "My brothers, the scripture had to be fulfilled which the holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David, concerning Judas, who was the guide for those who arrested Jesus…For it is written in the Book of Psalms: 'Let his encampment become desolate, and may no one dwell in it.' And: 'May another take his office.‘ Therefore, it is necessary that one of the men who accompanied us the whole time the Lord Jesus came and went among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day on which he was taken up from us, become with us a witness to his resurrection.“ So they proposed two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also known as Justus, and Matthias. – Acts 1:12-16, 20-26


Pentecost

Pentecost

  • “Then Peter stood up with the Eleven, raised his voice, and proclaimed to them, "You who are Jews, indeed all of you staying in Jerusalem. Let this be known to you, and listen to my words.” – Acts 2:14

  • Peter is already set apart as the leader of the Church, and the other Apostles have acquired the title of “the eleven.”


Council of jerusalem

Council of Jerusalem

  • Some who had come down from Judea were instructing the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised according to the Mosaic practice, you cannot be saved." …The apostles and the presbyters met together to see about this matter. After much debate had taken place, Peter got up and said to them, "My brothers, you are well aware that from early days God made his choice among you that through my mouth the Gentiles would hear the word of the gospel and believe…” The whole assembly fell silent, and they listened while Paul and Barnabas described the signs and wonders God had worked among the Gentiles through them. – Acts 15: 1,6-7, 15


Peter and paul

Peter and Paul

  • “But when (God), who from my mother's womb had set me apart and called me through his grace, was pleased to reveal his Son to me, so that I might proclaim him to the Gentiles, I did not immediately consult flesh and blood, nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me; rather, I went into Arabia and then returned to Damascus. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to confer with Cephas and remained with him for fifteen days.” – Galatians 1:16-19


Peter in rome

Peter in Rome

  • The last mention of Peter in Acts is at the Council of Jerusalem. The story then moves on to the journeys of Paul. So what happened to Peter? Did he go to Rome?

  • No detailed record of Peter’s life exists. However by looking at the data from Scripture and later Church writings it is possible to piece a timeline of his life together.


The apostolic ministry of st peter a d 30 67

The Apostolic Ministry of St. PeterA.D. 30-67

  • C. 30 – The death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Jesus, Pentecost

  • 30-37 – Peter head of Church in Jerusalem

  • 38-39 – Peter’s missionary journeys in Samaria and on the coast of Palestine

  • 40-41 – Peter in Antioch

  • 42 – Imprisonment in Jerusalem, escape, and departure to “another place”

  • 42-49 – First Sojourn to Rome

  • 49 – Expulsion from Rome by the edict of Claudius against its Jews

  • 49-50 – In Jerusalem for the Apostolic Council

  • 50-54 – In Antioch, Bithyna, Pontus, Asia, and Cappadocia

  • 54-57 – Second sojourn in Rome

  • 57-62 – In Bithyna, Pontus, and Cappadocia

  • 62-67 – Third sojourn in Rome; canonical Epistles of Peter written

  • 67 – Martyrdom in Rome and burial near the Necropolis at the Vatican

    • Stephen Ray. Upon this Rock. Ignatius Press :San Francisco, 1999


Peter in his first epistle

Peter in his first Epistle

  • “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen sojourners of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia…I write you this briefly through Silvanus, whom I consider a faithful brother, exhorting you and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Remain firm in it. The chosen one at Babylon sends you greeting, as does Mark, my son. Greet one another with a loving kiss. Peace to all of you who are in Christ.” – 1 Peter 1:1, 5;12-13


Apostolic fathers

Apostolic Fathers

  • The Apostolic Fathers are a small number of Early Christian authors who lived and wrote in the second half of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century.

  • They are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, although their writings were not included in the New Testament.

  • The label "Apostolic Fathers" has been applied to them to indicate that they were thought of as being of the generation that had personal contact with the Twelve Apostles.

  • Their writings testify to the presence of Peter in Rome and his primacy in the Early Church.


Clement of rome

Clement of Rome

  • Third bishop of Rome after St. Peter.

    • Peter until martyrdom in 67 A.D.

    • Linus from 67-79

    • Anacletus from 79-85

    • Clement from 85-96

  • Ireaneus on Clement, “This man, as he had seen the blessed apostles, and had been conversant with them, might be said to have the preaching of the apostles still echoing [in his ears], and their traditions before his eyes.” –Against Heresies


Clement s first epistle to corinthians written from rome ca ad 96

Clement’s First Epistle to Corinthians (written from Rome ca. AD. 96)

  • The church of God which sojourns at Rome, to the church of God sojourning at Corinth, to them that are called and sanctified by the will of God, through our Lord Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, from Almighty God through Jesus Christ, be multiplied.

  • Owing, dear brethren, to the sudden and successive calamitous events which have happened to ourselves, we feel that we have been somewhat tardy in turning our attention to the points respecting which you consulted us; -Clement 1


The papacy

  • The apostles have preached the gospel to us from the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus Christ [has done so] from God. Christ therefore was sent forth by God, and the apostles by Christ. Both these appointments, then, were made in an orderly way, according to the will of God. Having therefore received their orders, and being fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and established in the word of God, with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at hand. And thus preaching through countries and cities, they appointed the first fruits [of their labors], having first proved them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of those who should afterwards believe. Nor was this any new thing, since indeed many ages before it was written concerning bishops and deacons. For thus says the Scripture in a certain place, "I will appoint their bishops in righteousness, and their deacons in faith.“

  • Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would be strife on account of the office of the episcopate. For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those [ministers] already mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions, that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them, or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ, in a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry.


The papacy

  • Joy and gladness will you afford us, if you become obedient to the words written by us and through the Holy Spirit root out the lawless wrath of your jealousy according to the intercession which we have made for peace and unity in this letter. We have sent men faithful and discreet, whose conversation from youth to old age has been blameless among us—the same shall be witnesses between you and us. This we have done, that you may know that our whole concern has been and is that you may be speedily at peace.

  • Send back speedily to us in peace and with joy these our messengers to you: Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, with Fortunatus; that they may the sooner announce to us the peace and harmony we so earnestly desire and long for [among you], and that we may the more quickly rejoice over the good order re-established among you. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you, and with all everywhere that are the called of God through Him, by whom be to Him glory, honour, power, majesty, and eternal dominion, from everlasting to everlasting. Amen.


Ignatius of antioch a d 35 107

Ignatius of Antioch A.D. 35-107

  • Bishop of Antioch in Syria, second in line of succession in Antioch after Peter.

  • Arrested and taken to Rome to be feed to the wild beasts.

  • Wrote 7 letters to various Churches on his way to Rome.

  • The letters give us an invaluable glimpse of the first century Christian community and see the structure and practices of the apostolic Churches across Asia Minor and the East.


Letter to the romans

Letter to the Romans

  • Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which has obtained mercy, through the majesty of the Most High Father, and Jesus Christ, His only-begotten Son; the Church which is beloved and enlightened by the will of Him that wills all things which are according to the love of Jesus Christ our God, which also presides in the place of the region of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honor, worthy of the highest happiness, worthy of praise, worthy of obtaining her every desire, worthy of being deemed holy, and which presides over love, is named from Christ, and from the Father, which I also salute in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father: to those who are united, both according to the flesh and spirit, to every one of His commandments; who are filled inseparably with the grace of God, and are purified from every strange taint, [I wish] abundance of happiness unblameably, in Jesus Christ our God.


The papacy

  • I write to the Churches, and impress on them all, that I shall willingly die for God, unless you hinder me. I beseech of you not to show an unseasonable good-will towards me. Allow me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it will be granted me to attain to God. I am the wheat of God, and let me be ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of Christ. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may leave nothing of my body; so that when I have fallen asleep [in death], I may be no trouble to any one. Then shall I truly be a disciple of Christ, when the world shall not see so much as my body. Entreat Christ for me, that by these instruments I may be found a sacrifice [to God]. I do not, as Peter and Paul, issue commandments unto you. They were apostles; I am but a condemned man: they were free, while I am, even until now, a servant. But when I suffer, I shall be the freed-man of Jesus, and shall rise again emancipated in Him. And now, being a prisoner, I learn not to desire anything worldly or vain.

  • Remember in your prayers the Church in Syria, which now has God for its shepherd, instead of me. Jesus Christ alone will oversee it, and your love [will also regard it]. But as for me, I am ashamed to be counted one of them; for indeed I am not worthy, as being the very last of them, and one born out of duetime. But I have obtained mercy to be somebody, if I shall attain to God. My spirit salutes you, and the love of the Churches that have received me in the name of Jesus Christ, and not as a mere passer-by. For even those Churches which were not near to me in the way, I mean according to the flesh, have gone before me, city by city, [to meet me.]


Church fathers of the first 5 centuries

Church Fathers of the First 5 Centuries

  • Early and influential theologians, eminent Christian teachers and great bishops. Their scholarly works were used as a precedent for centuries to come.

  • Ireaneus, Tertullian, Cyprian, Augustine


St ireaneus of lyon a d 130 200

St. Ireaneus of Lyon A.D. 130-200

  • For, after our Lord rose from the dead, [the apostles] were invested with power from on high when the Holy Spirit came down [upon them], were filled from all [His gifts], and had perfect knowledge: they departed to the ends of the earth, preaching the glad tidings of the good things [sent] from God to us, and proclaiming the peace of heaven to men, who indeed do all equally and individually possess the Gospel of God. Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him. –3.1.1


Tertullian a d 160 225

Tertullian A.D.160-225

  • Was anything withheld from the knowledge of Peter, who is called "the rock on which the church should be built," who also obtained "the keys of the kingdom of heaven," with the power of "loosing and binding in heaven and on earth?"

  • Come now, you who would indulge a better curiosity, if you would apply it to the business of your salvation, run over the apostolic churches, in which the very thrones of the apostles are still pre-eminent in their places, in which their own authentic writings are read, uttering the voice and representing the face of each of them severally. Achaia is very near you, (in which) you find Corinth. Since you are not far from Macedonia, you have Philippi; (and there too) you have the Thessalonians. Since you are able to cross to Asia, you get Ephesus. Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood! Where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's! Where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile!


Cyprian of carthage d a d 258

Cyprian of Carthaged. A.D. 258

  • On him [Peter] He builds the Church, and to him He gives the command to feed the sheep; and although He assigned a like power to all the Apostles, yet he founded a single Chair, and He established by His own authority a source and an intrinsic reason for that unity. Indeed, the others were that also which Peter was; but a primacy is given to Peter, whereby it is made clear that there is but one Church and one Chair. So too, all are shepherds, and the flock is shown to be one, fed by all the Apostles in single-minded accord. If someone does not hold fast to this unity of Peter, can he imagine that he still holds the faith? If he desert the chair of Peter upon whom the Church was built, can he still be confident that he is in the Church?" (Cyprian, The Unity of the Catholic Church [first edition] 4, c. AD 251)


St augustine a d 354 430

St. AugustineA.D. 354-430

  • For if the lineal succession of bishops is to be taken into account, with how much more certainty and benefit to the Church do we reckon back till we reach Peter himself, to whom, as bearing in a figure the whole Church, the Lord said: "Upon this rock will I build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it!" The successor of Peter was Linus, and his successors in unbroken continuity were these:— Clement, Anacletus, Evaristus, Alexander, Sixtus, Telesphorus, Iginus, Anicetus, Pius, Soter, Eleutherius, Victor, Zephirinus, Calixtus, Urbanus, Pontianus, Antherus, Fabianus, Cornelius, Lucius, Stephanus, Xystus, Dionysius, Felix, Eutychianus, Gaius, Marcellinus, Marcellus, Eusebius, Miltiades, Sylvester, Marcus, Julius, Liberius, Damasus, and Siricius, whose successor is the present Bishop Anastasius. – 53.2

  • Carthage was also near to the countries beyond the sea, and distinguished by illustrious renown, so that it had a bishop of more than ordinary influence, who could afford to disregard even a number of enemies conspiring against him, because he saw himself united by letters of communion both to the Roman Church, in which the supremacy of an apostolic chair has always flourished, and to all other lands from which Africa itself received the gospel, and was prepared to defend himself before these Churches if his adversaries attempted to cause an alienation of them from him. – 43.7


Early church councils

Early Church Councils

  • Nicaea I – A.D. 325

    • Let the ancient customs in Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis prevail, that the Bishop of Alexandria have jurisdiction in all these, since the like is customary for the Bishop of Rome also.

  • Ephesus – A.D. 431

    • Philip the presbyter and legate of the Apostolic See said: There is no doubt, and in fact it has been known in all ages, that the holy and most blessed Peter, prince (and head of the Apostles, pillar of the faith, and foundation of the Catholic Church, received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior and Redeemer of the human race, and that to him was given the power of loosing and binding sins: who down even to today and forever both lives and judges in his successors. The holy and most blessed pope Cœlestine, according to due order, is his successor and holds his place, and us he sent to supply his place in this holy synod.

  • Chalcedon – A.D. 451

    • “Peter has spoken through Leo.”


Current teachings

Current Teachings

  • Until the Protestant Reformation no one ever refuted or denied the Primacy of the Roman See. (As we have seen through the writings of the Early Fathers).

  • It was not until these challenges that the Church finally set out to define the doctrines concerning the papacy.


Council of trent 1566

Council of Trent 1566

  • The Church has but one ruler and one governor, the invisible one, Christ, whom the eternal Father hath made head over all the Church, which is his body; the visible one, the Pope, who, as legitimate successor of Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, fills the Apostolic chair.

  • It is the unanimous teaching of the Fathers that this visible head is necessary to establish and preserve unity in the Church. This St. Jerome clearly perceived and as clearly expressed when, in his work against Jovinian, he wrote: One is elected that, by the appointment of a head, all occasion of schism may be removed. -103


First vatican council 1869 1870

First Vatican Council (1869-1870)

  • Therefore, faithfully adhering to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith, to the glory of God our saviour, for the exaltation of the catholic religion and for the salvation of the Christian people, with the approval of the sacred council, we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma that when the Roman pontiff speaks EX CATHEDRA, that is, when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole church, he possesses, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals. Therefore, such definitions of the Roman pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the church, irreformable.


Second vatican council 1962 1965

Second Vatican Council(1962-1965)

  • The Roman Pontiff, as the successor of Peter, is the perpetual and visible principle and foundation of unity of both the bishops and of the faithful. The individual bishops, however, are the visible principle and foundation of unity in their particular churches, fashioned after the model of the universal Church, in and from which churches comes into being the one and only Catholic Church. For this reason the individual bishops represent each his own church, but all of them together and with the Pope represent the entire Church in the bond of peace, love and unity. -23


Catechism of the catholic church promulgated 1994

Catechism of the Catholic Church Promulgated 1994

  • When Christ instituted the Twelve, "he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them." Just as "by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another.“ -880

  • The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock. "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head." This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope. -881


  • Login