Social inclusion - VET and higher education. Fran Ferrier and Sue North. Overview. Terms and concepts How is social exclusion measured? Education inequities: from disadvantage to social exclusion Participation and social exclusion Social inclusion policies.
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Social inclusion - VET and higher education
Fran Ferrier and Sue North
What do the terms ‘social inclusion’ and ‘social exclusion’ mean?
An individual is socially excluded if he or she does not participate to a reasonable degree over time in certain activities of his or her society, and (a) this is for reasons beyond his or her control, and (b) he or she would like to participate (Burchardt 2000).
Emerging consensus around SI and SE as processes rather than states
The processes that create linked problems such as poverty, disadvantage, deprivation, and marginalization.
The processes or actions that are taken to ameliorate the impact of these problems and/or to counter the processes that create them.
These processes can occur simultaneously and can impact on each other
Exclusionary processes can be active (e.g. discrimination) or passive (e.g. unintended consequences).
Processes of social exclusion create linked problems
Processesof social inclusion ameliorate the impact of linked problems such as poverty (e.g. through transfer payments) and homelessness (e.g. through public housing) and/or counter the processes that create them.
Social inclusion and exclusion as processes
Services and resources
Social exclusion as a process
Low levels of education and skills:
Poverty & Social Exclusion Survey – UK
Social Policy Research Centre - UNSW
Limited number of indicators. Commonly:
Given important role of education in SI there is a need for more and better indicators.
What can approaches based on social inclusion/exclusion add to what is already known about inequities in higher education and VET?
How can they be used to guide policies and initiatives to address inequities?
People from low SES backgrounds
From equity research and practice, e.g.:
Using ‘social exclusion’ as a euphemism for disadvantage does not enable additional insights into inequities.
How then to proceed?
Disadvantage and social exclusion are both relational concepts
Both are used as shorthand labels for social ills
Both refer to something that is unfair
But they can differ:
Disadvantage = a state (dynamic)
Social exclusion = processes
Looking at inequities through
The lens of disadvantage
The lens of social exclusion =
A more comprehensive picture
For interventions to be most effective both the symptoms and the disease need to be treated simultaneously
People with no post-school qualification or a low level qualification:
Among 20-39 year olds in the GSS: