influence of solvent on selective deposition of tungsten oxide nanostructures via aacvd
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Influence of Solvent on Selective Deposition of Tungsten Oxide Nanostructures via AACVD. Chris Blackman. Background. The intrinsic properties of nanomaterials promise advances in a wide range of fields Vapour synthesis of nanomaterials – AACVD Increased atom efficiency

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influence of solvent on selective deposition of tungsten oxide nanostructures via aacvd

Influence of Solvent on Selective Deposition of Tungsten Oxide Nanostructures via AACVD

Chris Blackman

background
Background
  • The intrinsic properties of nanomaterials promise advances in a wide range of fields
  • Vapour synthesis of nanomaterials – AACVD
    • Increased atom efficiency
    • Reduced waste production
    • Compatible with device manufacture
    • Scalable
  • Synthesis often requires high temperatures
    • Device fabrication issues
    • Precursor design
    • Other factors?
synthesis
Synthesis
  • Precursor [W(OPh)6]
  • Solvent
    • Acetone
    • Methanol
    • Toluene
  • Substrate 400 °C – 600 °C
  • Carrier (N2) Flow 200 cm3/min

W.B. Cross et al, Chem. Mater., 2003, 2786

toluene solution results
Toluene Solution Results

Y. Liu, M. Liu, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2005, 15

factors affecting nanostructure morphology
Factors Affecting Nanostructure Morphology
  • Influence of evaporation time of aerosol droplets
  • ‘Normal’ view is complete evaporation of droplet
  • Incomplete evaporation can lead to formation of solid shell at droplet surface
  • Less volatile toluene has lower probability of forming solid shell
factors affecting nanostructure morphology7
Factors Affecting Nanostructure Morphology
  • Influence of reactant diffusion
    • Principally dependent on precursor flux
methanol containing solution results
Methanol-containing Solution Results
  • Addition of methanol causes dramatic reduction in temperature required for nanostructure formation
  • Methanol is known to decompose via a radical mechanism at temperatures as low as 220 °C
    • Formation of more reactive intermediate, i.e. methanol is not simply a ‘carrier’ solvent
  • Formation of particles (homogeneous reaction) at increased temperatures indicates a different chemical species (intermediate) may be involved compared to toluene or acetone
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The use of different ‘carrier’ solvents influences the nanostructure morphology obtained
  • Differences between acetone and toluene may be related to:
    • Rate of droplet evaporation
    • Rate of reactant diffusion
  • Difference found with methanol may be related to chemical interaction between solvent and precursor
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Dr Stella Vargas
  • Mr Savio Moniz
  • Dr PolonaUmek (Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia)
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