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Final Presentation. Subject: Business Ethics. Group 3 Members. Fatima Aftab ( 2655 ) Saira Khan (01034) Anum Shahid (2643) Ali Farooq (2651) Danish- ur - Rehman (01008). The real face of cloning.

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Final presentation

Final Presentation

Subject: Business Ethics


Group 3 members

Group 3 Members

  • Fatima Aftab (2655)

  • SairaKhan (01034)

  • AnumShahid (2643)

  • Ali Farooq (2651)

  • Danish-ur-Rehman(01008)


The real face of cloning

The real face of cloning

  • Cloning is the creation of an individual that is an exact replica of another individual.

  • A complete organism is formed from the altered fertilized egg from the genes in the transferred nucleus.

  • Jurassic Park, based by Michael Crichton


Final presentation

  • Also, there is research being done on how to clone the species by extracting the DNA from frozen animals.

  • the panorama of cloning humans artificially is debatable

  • Why would anybody choose to clone human beings?

    • Infertile couples

    • Replacing a deceased child


Ethical issues regarding human reproductive cloning

Ethical Issues regarding Human Reproductive Cloning

  • There are issues of Technical and medical safety.

  • Destabilizing the concept of family and reproduction.

  • Ambiguous relations of a cloned child with the progenitor

  • Harming the psychological development and also confusing personal identity of a clone

  • Promoting trends towards human enhancement and designer babies.


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  • "John Stuart Mill regarded bringing children into being without the prospect of adequate physical and psychological support as nothing short of a moral crime."


The smell test

THE SMELL TEST 

  • Introduce the test

    • What would it smell like if we read about it in a newspaper or a blog?

  • Validity

    • Why is this principle a valid guide to identifying ethical issues?

  • Application

    • People will keep claiming to have created cloned babies, and eventually someone will succeed, but at what cost? A lot of damaged children and disappointed parents.

  • Conclusion

    • Cloning is unethical.


The utility test

THE UTILITY TEST

  • Are we maximizing good and minimizing harm for all those affected?

  • We are subjecting the harm to be maximized through cloning as now the original share of one human being in the utility system will be consumed twice.


Why is this principle a valid guide to conduct

Why is this principle a valid guide to conduct?

  • Every life is valuable and everyone wants to live longer, we should try to maximize life for all humans.


Application

Application

  • Raelians claim that they have achived successful cloning process without any solid evidence.

  • The cloning technology is loaded with risks and the numbers of success are 6/100

  • The ST effect on humans will be that their lives will be made infinite but with least chances of success.

  • The LT effects include lack of emotion, lack of resources, dramatic disturbance of natural balance on earth.


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • This experimental technology should not be allowed to harvest further as it will result in the deaths of many volunteers.


The rights test

THE RIGHTS TEST

  • Are we respecting the rights of those affected?

  • No, we are not respecting the rights of others through cloning as we shall be subjecting the others, especially the original biological humans, to a curtailment of their natural rights as these rights will be subdivided further.


Why is this principle a valid guide to conduct1

Why is this principle a valid guide to conduct? 

  • Persons deserve respect because they have value in themselves.  Rights are what they need to have an existence that expresses that value.   If I recognize value in myself and I claim to have rights that recognize or protect that value, then unless I can show that others are different, they should have the same rights that I have.


Application1

Application

  • Right to life is a Gift from God and we should not usurp that right in the name of science.

  • Through cloning the fundamental rights of human beings are affected as now there will twice the subjects if the same right enjoyed by one human.


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • Cloning is an utter violation of human’s natural right to life and it should be banned for good. So, that no one should be able to misguide other human beings and lure them into this trap of eventual death.


Exceptions test

EXCEPTIONS TEST

Introduce the test:

“Is that right that we making an exception for ourselves? 

  • Cloning can effect the life cycle of the nature

  • build armies, cheap labor, and clones freedom of speech

    Validity

  • Everyone has equal rights

  • everyone should be allowed to make clones of themselves


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Apply the test

Specify the action:

  • Cloning is the uncertain practice

    What if everyone wants to do it?

  • what grounds will it be cloning legalized on.

  • who will be given the rights to clone

    can it be possible for anyone to do it?

  • no

    What if they did it to us?

  • see babies die or what if you or I were a clone baby

    Conclusion:

  • It should be a highly protected process


The choices test

THE CHOICES TEST

Introduce the test:

“Are the people affected able to make their own choices?”

  • genetic disorders are not able to be cured

    Validity:

    Why is this a valid way to decide right or wrong?

  • Society don’t give equal importance to the clone


Final presentation

 Application: 

  • people choose what they think is best for them

    Are we giving others the freedom to choose?

  •   Cloning is a freedom to choose

  • Capabilities and implications of human cloning are never forecasted

    Are we giving others the information to know what they value in this situation? 

  • reproductive cloning is not yet a fool-proof method

    Conclusion

    addresses the complex moral, ethical and political issues


The justice test

THE JUSTICE TEST

Introduce the test:“Is this a fair distribution of benefits and burdens?”

  • Human cloning lead to raise inequality and unfairness in society

  • produce greater discrimination among people and societies

    Validity

  • immoral

  • logically unacceptable.

  • risk a person`s sense of individuality and uniqueness.


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Application

How are the benefits and burdens distributed?

  • useful in curing genetic diseases

  • human cloning is a very vague action

    Is this distribution fair?

  • uncertain outcome

  • clone is not viewed as equivalent

    Conclusion

  • produce an unfair distribution


The common good test

THE COMMON GOOD TEST

Introduce the test:

- No Effective Role

- Awareness

Validity:

Since we all have access to the common good and advantage from it, we all have obligations to create and maintain it.


The common good test1

THE COMMON GOOD TEST

Apply the test:

What parts of the common good are involved?

  • Producing organs

    e.g. (kidney transplant)

  • Destructive and miserable facts


The common good test2

THE COMMON GOOD TEST

Explain why we have obligation to promote or

protect the common good?

  • Controversial issue

  • Scientists are continuously trying to clone

  • Scientists are capable to clone

    (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and mice)

  • Major errors:

    (placental defects, oversized fetuses, kidney and lung problems, brain abnormalities and severe weight gain)

  • Protect the lives and rights


The common good test3

THE COMMON GOOD TEST

Does the proposed action conflict with this

obligation?

No, there isn’t any conflict between the

proposed action and obligation, because after

applying the common good test both sides of

the picture are very clear.


The common good test4

THE COMMON GOOD TEST

Conclusion:

  • “The Real Face of Cloning”

  • Terrible and damaging facts

  • Common good test aids

  • Question

    Q: Each person, individually, must decide that cloning should be allowed or not and the governments should interfere to make the policy?


The character or virtue test

THE CHARACTER OR VIRTUE TEST

Introduce the test:

Does this action represent the kind of person I am

or want to be?

  • Several reasons i.e.

  • Isn’t a successful area

  • Process is filled with errors

  • Unethical activity

  • Interference in nature

    Validity:

  • influenced by our ethical actions.

  • not acceptable in our societies.


The character or virtue test1

THE CHARACTER OR VIRTUE TEST

Apply the test:

Would this action help make you the kind of person you want to be?

  • As a human being and a society who isn’t allow cloning and consider it unethical e.g.

  • if someone asks me to clone my deceased grandfather.

  • same affection

  • love me the same way

  • abnormalities and genetic disorders.

  • So I wouldn’t want to be the kind of person who would clone people.


The character or virtue test2

THE CHARACTER OR VIRTUE TEST

Conclusion:

  • brilliant advancement in medical technology

  • Should not appreciate cloning

  • Educate others

  • Duty of scientists

  • Pros and cons.


Compare conclusions of tests to draw final conclusion

COMPARE CONCLUSIONS OF TESTS TO DRAW FINAL CONCLUSION

  • Objection on cloning declares unnecessarily harm to humans

  • cloning is unethical

  • should not be promoted

  • process of human cloning should be abandoned

  • the governments should ensure cloning to be forbidden

  • It should be limited only to clone organs

  • Fear of a reduced sense of identity and individuality, in a cloned person

  • not interfere in nature by playing God

  • Educate others with its true picture.


Final presentation

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