An alternative approach to web based education technology intensive not labor intensive
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An Alternative Approach to Web-Based Education: Technology-Intensive, Not Labor-Intensive. Linda V. Knight Theresa A. Steinbach James D. White. In a nutshell….

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An alternative approach to web based education technology intensive not labor intensive

An Alternative Approach to Web-Based Education:Technology-Intensive, Not Labor-Intensive

Linda V. Knight

Theresa A. Steinbach

James D. White


In a nutshell
In a nutshell…

  • The most feasible approach to large-scale dissemination of factual information online is through Web posting of unedited, automatic audio and video recordings of traditional classroom sessions.


Outline
Outline

  • Common approach to Web-based education and associated problems

  • Alternative approach used by DePaul CTI

  • Advantages, limitations, keys to success


Typical web based education
Typical Web-based education

  • Text-based posting of class notes 88%

  • Streaming video 28%

Source: Shea et al., 2001


Advantages of text based online courses
Advantages of text-based online courses

  • “… the most simplistic means of teaching a course over the Internet”

  • “… help reduce technology and resource costs including infrastructure, hardware, and software and technical support.”

    Sharma and Gupta, ISECON 2001


Disadvantage 1 labor intensive development and delivery
Disadvantage #1:Labor-intensive development and delivery

  • Almost three times as long to develop(SchWeber, 1998)

  • “40% to 50% more work on the teacher’s part”(Brown, 1998)

  • “The largest component of online cost is faculty time”(Charp, 1999)


Why are online courses so labor intensive
Why are online courses so labor-intensive?

  • “Because of the reliance on text-based communication and a lack of visual cues, every aspect of the course has to be laid out in meticulous detail to avoid misunderstandings.” (Smith et al., 2001)


Disadvantage 2 lack of economies of scale
Disadvantage # 2:Lack of economies of scale

  • Marginal development cost for each course added does not decrease.

  • Marginal implementation cost for each student added does not decrease.

    • Building a virtual community


Disadvantage 3 difficulty maintaining current content
Disadvantage #3: Difficulty maintaining current content

  • Currency is a particular challenge for IT-related courses

  • Common practice of paying faculty one-time development fees discourages currency


Disadvantage 4 potential lack of robust interpersonal communication

Largely asynchronous

Loss of visual and auditory clues

Less spontaneous

Less sense of community

Loss of some communication content

Disadvantage #4:Potential lack of robust interpersonal communication


Four disadvantages of text based approaches
Four disadvantages of text-based approaches

  • Labor intensive development and delivery

  • Lack of economies of scale

  • Difficulty maintaining current content

  • Difficulty generating robust interpersonal interaction


Alternative approach
Alternative approach

  • Capture the classroom experience

    • Video and audio of lecture

    • White boards

    • Computer projector

    • Document camera

  • Post on Web without editing


Cti s experience
CTI’s experience

  • 1998: Dean Epp’s vision

    • Automatically recording traditional classes

    • Managing large numbers of courses with a database driven system

  • 2002:

    • Forty-eight classrooms equipped for automatic recordings

    • Over 500 Web course enrollments per term

    • Three totally online degrees accredited by North Central Association


Mechanics of classroom recording
Mechanics of classroom recording

  • Automatic recordings during scheduled class time

    • Fixed microphones and cameras

  • Electronic whiteboards

  • All materials shown on classroom computer

    • PowerPoint slides

    • Web sites visited

    • Programming code demonstrated

  • Everything shown on document camera


The finished product
The “finished” product

  • Unedited capturing of actual classroom experience

  • User interface was written by CTI’s support staff. Alternatives:

    • www.webct.com

    • www.blackboard.com



Watching a lecture
Watching a lecture

  • Ability to fast-forward

  • Ability to pause

  • Ability to switch views between white boards and computer (PowerPoint)





Leverage technology reduce faculty time
Leverage technology; Reduce faculty time

  • Automatic recording

    • Eliminates need for creating unique lecture notes for distance learning students

  • Central Web repository

    • Facilitates distribution of notes, assignments, etc.


Addresses all four disadvantages of text based approaches
Addresses all four disadvantages of text-based approaches

  • Less labor intensive development and delivery

  • Lack of economies of scale

  • No difficulty maintaining current content

  • Less difficulty generating robust interpersonal interaction


Benefits to traditional classes
Benefits to traditional classes

  • All CTI classrooms have up-to-date projecting computer systems and document cameras

  • Ability to view a missed class session

  • Ability to complete a course or degree, even if transferred out-of-town

  • Ability to review difficult material


Success principles faculty
Success principles: faculty

  • Recognize faculty as key to success

  • Facilitate experimentation with the technology

  • Never use recordings for faculty evaluation

  • Provide adequate technical and clerical support staff

  • Address intellectual property concerns

  • Pay for distance enrollment


Success principles students
Success principles: students

  • Provide technical and support services on schedule appropriate for distance students

  • Set expectations before enrollment


Limitations
Limitations

  • Not suitable for classes involving extensive discussion and small group work

  • Substantial fixed cost infrastructure investment can only be overcome by large implementations


Keys to success
Keys to success

  • Top level administrative vision and support

  • Recognition of faculty as critical success factor



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