An alternative approach to web based education technology intensive not labor intensive
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An Alternative Approach to Web-Based Education: Technology-Intensive, Not Labor-Intensive. Linda V. Knight Theresa A. Steinbach James D. White. In a nutshell….

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An Alternative Approach to Web-Based Education: Technology-Intensive, Not Labor-Intensive

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An alternative approach to web based education technology intensive not labor intensive

An Alternative Approach to Web-Based Education:Technology-Intensive, Not Labor-Intensive

Linda V. Knight

Theresa A. Steinbach

James D. White


In a nutshell

In a nutshell…

  • The most feasible approach to large-scale dissemination of factual information online is through Web posting of unedited, automatic audio and video recordings of traditional classroom sessions.


Outline

Outline

  • Common approach to Web-based education and associated problems

  • Alternative approach used by DePaul CTI

  • Advantages, limitations, keys to success


Typical web based education

Typical Web-based education

  • Text-based posting of class notes 88%

  • Streaming video 28%

Source: Shea et al., 2001


Advantages of text based online courses

Advantages of text-based online courses

  • “… the most simplistic means of teaching a course over the Internet”

  • “… help reduce technology and resource costs including infrastructure, hardware, and software and technical support.”

    Sharma and Gupta, ISECON 2001


Disadvantage 1 labor intensive development and delivery

Disadvantage #1:Labor-intensive development and delivery

  • Almost three times as long to develop(SchWeber, 1998)

  • “40% to 50% more work on the teacher’s part”(Brown, 1998)

  • “The largest component of online cost is faculty time”(Charp, 1999)


Why are online courses so labor intensive

Why are online courses so labor-intensive?

  • “Because of the reliance on text-based communication and a lack of visual cues, every aspect of the course has to be laid out in meticulous detail to avoid misunderstandings.” (Smith et al., 2001)


Disadvantage 2 lack of economies of scale

Disadvantage # 2:Lack of economies of scale

  • Marginal development cost for each course added does not decrease.

  • Marginal implementation cost for each student added does not decrease.

    • Building a virtual community


Disadvantage 3 difficulty maintaining current content

Disadvantage #3: Difficulty maintaining current content

  • Currency is a particular challenge for IT-related courses

  • Common practice of paying faculty one-time development fees discourages currency


Disadvantage 4 potential lack of robust interpersonal communication

Largely asynchronous

Loss of visual and auditory clues

Less spontaneous

Less sense of community

Loss of some communication content

Disadvantage #4:Potential lack of robust interpersonal communication


Four disadvantages of text based approaches

Four disadvantages of text-based approaches

  • Labor intensive development and delivery

  • Lack of economies of scale

  • Difficulty maintaining current content

  • Difficulty generating robust interpersonal interaction


Alternative approach

Alternative approach

  • Capture the classroom experience

    • Video and audio of lecture

    • White boards

    • Computer projector

    • Document camera

  • Post on Web without editing


Cti s experience

CTI’s experience

  • 1998: Dean Epp’s vision

    • Automatically recording traditional classes

    • Managing large numbers of courses with a database driven system

  • 2002:

    • Forty-eight classrooms equipped for automatic recordings

    • Over 500 Web course enrollments per term

    • Three totally online degrees accredited by North Central Association


Mechanics of classroom recording

Mechanics of classroom recording

  • Automatic recordings during scheduled class time

    • Fixed microphones and cameras

  • Electronic whiteboards

  • All materials shown on classroom computer

    • PowerPoint slides

    • Web sites visited

    • Programming code demonstrated

  • Everything shown on document camera


The finished product

The “finished” product

  • Unedited capturing of actual classroom experience

  • User interface was written by CTI’s support staff. Alternatives:

    • www.webct.com

    • www.blackboard.com


Cti s user interface

CTI’s User Interface


Watching a lecture

Watching a lecture

  • Ability to fast-forward

  • Ability to pause

  • Ability to switch views between white boards and computer (PowerPoint)


Viewing lecture and powerpoint simultaneously

Viewing lecture and PowerPoint simultaneously


Viewing lecture and white boards simultaneously

Viewing lecture and white boards simultaneously


Control panel

Control Panel


Leverage technology reduce faculty time

Leverage technology; Reduce faculty time

  • Automatic recording

    • Eliminates need for creating unique lecture notes for distance learning students

  • Central Web repository

    • Facilitates distribution of notes, assignments, etc.


Addresses all four disadvantages of text based approaches

Addresses all four disadvantages of text-based approaches

  • Less labor intensive development and delivery

  • Lack of economies of scale

  • No difficulty maintaining current content

  • Less difficulty generating robust interpersonal interaction


Benefits to traditional classes

Benefits to traditional classes

  • All CTI classrooms have up-to-date projecting computer systems and document cameras

  • Ability to view a missed class session

  • Ability to complete a course or degree, even if transferred out-of-town

  • Ability to review difficult material


Success principles faculty

Success principles: faculty

  • Recognize faculty as key to success

  • Facilitate experimentation with the technology

  • Never use recordings for faculty evaluation

  • Provide adequate technical and clerical support staff

  • Address intellectual property concerns

  • Pay for distance enrollment


Success principles students

Success principles: students

  • Provide technical and support services on schedule appropriate for distance students

  • Set expectations before enrollment


Limitations

Limitations

  • Not suitable for classes involving extensive discussion and small group work

  • Substantial fixed cost infrastructure investment can only be overcome by large implementations


Keys to success

Keys to success

  • Top level administrative vision and support

  • Recognition of faculty as critical success factor


Questions comments

Questions / Comments

?


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