Three phyla of worms
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Three Phyla of Worms. Review the Animal Kingdom. 4 Major Characteristics? Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs Cells lack cell walls. Feeding Respiration Circulation Excretion. Response Movement Reproduction. 7 Essential Functions?. Hard Shells. Fur & Milk Glands. Amniotic Egg.

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Three Phyla of Worms

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Three Phyla of Worms


Review the Animal Kingdom

  • 4 Major Characteristics?

  • Multicellular

  • Eukaryotic

  • Heterotrophs

  • Cells lack cell walls


Feeding

Respiration

Circulation

Excretion

Response

Movement

Reproduction

7 Essential Functions?


Hard Shells

Fur & Milk Glands

Amniotic Egg

Lungs

Bony Skeleton

jaws

Brain Encased Skull


The Anatomy of a Sponge

Water flow

Osculum

Collar Cell

Central cavity

Pores

Spicule

Pore cell

Pore

Epidermal cell

Archaeocyte


Ecology of Sponges

  • Ideal habitats for marine animals such as snails, sea stars, sea cucumbers, and shrimp

  • Mutually beneficial relationships with bacteria, algae and plant-like protists


Cnidarians have two body forms

Polyp - stationary, vase-shaped

Medusa - swimming, cup-shaped

Examples: hydra, coral, sea anemone

Examples: jellyfish, portuguese man of war


Ecology of Cnidarians

  • A. Source of new drugs/chemicalssunscreen 855

  • B. Provide habitats for marine organisms

  • C. Source of food for other organisms (like sea turtles)

  • D. Symbiotic relationships with other organisms


WORMS

Phylum: Annelida

Phylum: Platyhelminthes

Phylum: Nematoda


What’s a Worm???

  • A long, thin invertebrate with BILATERAL symmetry, a nervous system, and cephalization

  • Simplest animal to have a true organs like a brain!

  • Reproduction - Sexual (hermaphroditic – male and female reproductive organs) and Asexual – Fission (breaking into pieces)

  • Many are parasites- (good/bad relationship) live on or in a host


3 Distinct Phyla

  • Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

  • Nematoda (roundworms)

  • Annelida (segmented worms)


  • http://animal.discovery.com/videos/monsters-inside-me-tapeworm-in-my-brain.html

  • http://animal.discovery.com/videos/monsters-inside-me-flesh-eating-hookworm.html

  • http://planetgreen.discovery.com/videos/g-word-red-wigglers.html

  • http://animal.discovery.com/videos/top-10-bloodsuckers-leech.html


Characteristics of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)

A. Soft flattened worms with true tissues and internal organs.

B. Simplest animals to have bilateral symmetry and cephalization.


Flatworms carry out 7 essential functions

1. Feeding – some carnivorous, most parasitic; one opening into gut; pharynx sucks in food and releases waste

2. Respiration/ Circulation/ Excretion – No respiratory No circulatory system, system; Obtain nutrients and oxygen by diffusion directly into cells. Simple excretory system of specialized cells.


3. Response/Movement – ganglia= groups of nerves in head control nervous system (like a brain); “ladder” of nerves run over body; eyespot detects light; move by cilia and squirming using outer layer of muscle tissue


Diseases caused by parasitic flatworms

  • Flukes-Usually infect internal organs of host – Example: The blood fluke Schistosoma- causes tissue damage that could result in death


Schistosome Life Cycle

Primary host (human)

Intermdiate host(snail)

Section 27-1

4. Inside the human host, the flukes produce eggs that clog blood vessels, causing swelling and damage to lungs, liver, spleen, and/or intestines

Primary host

Flukes mature and reproduce sexually in the blood vessels of human intestines. Embryos are released and passed out with feces.

Adult

fluke

Human

intestine

Embryo

Ciliated

larva

Tailed

larva

After asexualreproduction, newlarvae are releasedfrom the snail into the water. They then infect humans, the primary host, by boring through their skin.

Once in the water, embryos develop into swimming larvae that infect an intermediate host (snail).

Secondary host


Diseases caused by parasitic flatworms

  • Flukes-Usually infect internal organs of host – Example: The blood fluke Schistosoma

  • Tapeworms – Long, flat, and have adaptations for life inside intestines of host


Parasitic Flatworms

Head with a scolex -suckers and hooks which attach to the host’s intestinal lining


Check Your Understanding

  • What type of symmetry do all worms have?

  • Worms are the simplest animals to have ____________ and ______________.

  • How do flatworms obtain nutrients and oxygen?

Bilateral

Bilateral symmetry

Cephalization

Diffusion


The Characteristics of RoundwormsPhylum Nematoda

A. Body plan- First animals to have a one way digestive system with mouth and anus (tube within in a tube);

B. First animals to have a fluid filled body cavity called a pseudocoelom- “false body cavity”


Roundworms Carry Out 7 Essential Functions

1. Feeding- many are carnivores with grasping mouthparts, some herbivores, many are parasites

2. Respiration/Circulation/ Excretion- No Respiratory or Circulatory Systems; rely on diffusion. Simple excretory organs.


3. Response/movement-have ganglia (“brain”)and simple nervous system, have muscular system and move like snakes


Diseases caused by parasitic roundworms

A. Trichinella causes painful cysts in the muscle tissue of humans and other animals- transmitted by eating undercooked meat containing worm eggs


Diseases caused by parasitic roundworms

B. Filarial wormscause Elephantiasis- fluid buildup that causes abnormally large limbs – transmitted through the bite of insects like mosquitos


Diseases caused by parasitic roundworms

C. Ascarids cause malnutrition in humans, horses, cows, etc by filling the intestinal tract of its host and absorbing all nutrients


Diseases caused by parasitic roundworms

D.Hookworms attach to the lungs and intestines and suck blood – common in humans(1/4 of world population); larvae pierce the skin & burrow into the body. Can severely damage internal organs. Transmitted through humans’ and other animals’ waste. (Wear Shoes!)


Check Your Understanding

  • What is different about the roundworm’s digestive system as compared to the flatworm’s digestive system?

  • How are roundworm diseases transmitted?

  • What are ganglia?

A roundworm has a mouth and anus. A flatworm only has one opening

By eating undercooked meat, walking barefoot, insect bites

Nerve tissue that function as simple brains


Phylum Annelida


Figure 1 – Body Structure

anus

mouth

clitellum


Phylum Annelida

A. Body Plan- tube within a tube, digestive system with mouth and anus; body divided into sections called septa that are specialized for different functions. First animals to have true circulatory system and coelom – body cavity.


Annelids carry out 7 essential functions?

1. Feeding- predators to filter feeders; use pharynx to get food, stored in crop, ground up in gizzard, absorbed in intestine.


One-way Digestive System

  • Mouth  pharynx  esophagus (throat)  crop (storage area)  gizzard (grinds food)  intestines (digestion)  anus


Annelids carry out 7 essential functions?

2. Circulation/ Respiration/ Excretion- closed circulatory system with vessels; breath through gills or through skin; have excretory organs called nephridia


Annelids carry out 7 essential functions?

2. Circulation/ Respiration/ Excretion- closed circulatory system with vessels; breath through gills or through skin; have excretory organs called nephridia

3. Response/Movement- have ganglia in each segment and in the head, nervous system; move by contracting and relaxing muscles


The Anatomy of an Earthworm

Anus

Setae

Body segments

Dorsalblood vessel

Gizzard

Crop

Clitellum

Mouth

Brain

Ganglion

Circular muscle

Ventralblood vessel

Ringvessels

Reproductiveorgans

Ganglia

Nephridia

Longitudinalmuscle

Section 27-3


Intestine

Gizzard

(grinds)

Clitellum

Dorsal blood vessel

Anus

Crop

(stores)

Aorticarches

Brain

Esophagus

Ventral

blood vessel

Ventral nerve cord

Pharynx

(throat)

Mouth

Segments


Ecology of Annelids

  • Aerate, mix, and fertilize the soil- have created some of the most fertile soils on earth!

  • Tunnels provide passage ways for plant roots and water

  • Important in the diets of many other animals such as birds, toads and snakes; marine annelids important in the diets of fishes, crabs, and lobsters


Check Your Understanding

  • Name one characteristic all three worm phyla have in common

  • What type of circulatory system do segmented worms have?


Figure 2 – Reproductive Structures

Sperm Grooves

prostomium

setae

Clitellum

Male genital pores

Earthworm coccoons


Intestine

Dorsal blood vessel

gizzard

crop

septa

Seminal vesicles

Aortic arches

pharynx

brain

mouth

Ventral blood vessel

ovaries

metameres

Seminal receptacles

Ventral nerve cord

nephridia

esophagus


Review

  • What are the three types of worms?

  • How do worms such as a planarian “see”?

  • What kind of worm includes leeches and marine worms?

  • What makes a segmented worm, such as an earthworm, different from other worms in regards to their circulatory system?


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