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Fuel Quality Developments in the European Union. International Fuel Quality Center Fuel Quality Policy and Technology Briefing Sofia, Bulgaria - April 2003 Sandrine Dixson-Decleve, Director Europe & Africa, International Fuel Quality Center.

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slide1

Fuel Quality Developments

in theEuropean Union

International Fuel Quality Center

Fuel Quality Policy and Technology Briefing

Sofia, Bulgaria - April 2003

Sandrine Dixson-Decleve, Director Europe & Africa,

International Fuel Quality Center

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

international fuel quality center
What is theInternational Fuel Quality Center(IFQC)?

A specialized member service that provides comprehensive information and concise analysis to members on pertinent actions and issues facing the transportation industry worldwide.

The service focus and emphasis is on automotive fuel quality, vehicle and engine related standards, and the health and environmental legislative and regulatory pressures leading these changes

Who isIFQC?

Currently: over 80 Global Refining, Automotive and Technology Companies and Governmental Organizations (more than 350 leading executives)

Working on the national, regional and international stage to facilitate dialogue and information exchange between transport related industries and governments

International Fuel Quality Center

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

international fuel quality center1
International Fuel Quality Center

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide4

Drivers: World Fuel Qualities

Politics

Refining Industry

& technology

Engine technologies

  • Gasoline & Diesel
  • Direct Injection
  • Hybrids
  • Fuel cells

Economy

Energy Security

Engine Exhaust

After-treatment

Technologies

Industry Competition

Local Economic Situation

  • Governmental interest
  • Taxes
  • Fuel adulteration
  • Availability

Fuel specifications

  • Lead
  • Sulphur
  • Distillation
  • Aromatics
  • Octane/Cetane
  • Additives
  • Oxygenates

Environment

  • Global
  • Country
  • Regional
  • Local

Alternative fuels

  • Bio-fuels
  • LPG
  • CNG
  • Gas to Liquid
  • H2

WHO & Kyoto

  • air quality standards

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

worldwide consumption transportation sector
Worldwide Consumption:Transportation Sector

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

automotive market
Automotive Market

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

current vehicle emission standards
Current Vehicle Emission Standards

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

global lead phase out

Lead free, 0.15 g Pb/l, more than 0.15 g Pb/l

GlobalLead Phase Out

1996

2005

Graph Based on March 2003 figures.Policy options to support lead phase out include: Mandatory phase out by certain date, fuel taxes and other incentive policies, unleaded fuel dispenser nozzle, mandating unleaded pumps, mandate vehicle design for unleaded gasoline

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide9
EU LAW

Dynamics of the European Union

COMMISSION

20 COMMISSIONERS

24DG\'s [directorates general]

COUNCIL

15 NATIONS

PARLIAMENT

626 MEPs

REGIONS

ECOSOC

COURT OF JUSTICE

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide10

Consumer & Environmental NGO’s

MEMBER STATES

Industry

UN-ECE

other related Commission services, legal service

MVWG MVEG MWG WGRTN

EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG ENTR/F/5

Commission proposal to the European Parliament & Council for a new Directive

Commission proposal for adapting existing Directive to technical progress

Preparation of Proposals

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide11

Role of the Institutions

Commission proposal foradapting existing Directive to technical progress

Commission proposal for a new Directive

co-decision procedure

right to scrutiny

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

COUNCIL

Economic & Social Committee

Committee for Adaptation to Technical Progress (CATP)

1st reading

common position

2nd reading

Directive of the European Parliament & Council

Possible conciliation

Commission Amending Directive

Implementation by Member States

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

eu legislative acts
Regulation - binding legislation

Directive – national transposition

Technical and Environmental Impact Analysis through Working Groups

Cost/Benefit and Cost/Effectiveness Analysis

Decision – Binding for those intended

Derogations on fuel quality or emissions targets

Recommendations & Opinions – non-binding

Resolution, Green & White Papers, Communications, Notices and Studies – Non-binding documents of legislative intent or statements on particular current topic

EU Legislative Acts

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide13

European Union: 1975 - 2000

1990’sFinland &

Sweden use tax incentives

for cleaner fuels.

1998Council Adopts

Auto-Oil Directives

2000:

Fuel Directive

& Euro III.

1980Smoke and

SO2 Directive

1999-2000 Daughter

Directives (SO2, NOX,

PM, Lead, Benzene,

CO)

1993

  • Fuel Quality Spec’s
  • Auto-Oil I Program
  • EPEFE Program
  • Euro I implemented

1982Lead Directive

(air quality)

2000 Mini-

Sulphur Review

1975sulphur

content of

certain liquid

fuels

1999Directive on

sulphur content of

certain liquid fuels

1985NO2 Directive

2001 Energy

taxation

legislation?

1996

  • Air Quality Framework

Directive

  • Euro II implemented

1999 Derogations

for Lead (Gr., It.,Sp.)

& Sulphur (Pr.)

1985Lead Directive

2001 Auto Oil II

Completion

1999 Further use of

tax incentives for

cleaner fuels.

1997 Auto-Oil II

1990\'s

2000\'s

1970\'s

1980\'s

Fuel Quality Legislation Mandated at National Level

Harmonised Fuel Quality & Auto Emissions become Focus for Air Quality & Climate Change

Air Quality & Fuel Quality Directly Linked

Implementation Begins - Enhancements Expected

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

auto oil directives program goals
Respond to Ambient Air Quality Targets and an integrated approach requiring further measures to reduce atmospheric pollution caused by vehicles

Address growing concern over pollution from the transportation sector

Passenger cars represent within EU member states from 75 to 90% of the total traffic volume, goods transport 8 to 20%, while bus and two-wheeler traffic are limited to 1 to 2% each .

Number of Vehicles on the road and increase in vehicle miles traveled offset decline in most pollutants

Motor vehicles generate about 30 percent of all emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds--the pollution that causes smog.

CO2 emissions from transport increased by 41% between 1985 and 1996 quickly becoming the largest source of CO2 emissions next to the energy sector. Road transport accounts for 85% of transport emissions

Implement a cost effective program with significant environmental and health benefits

When fully implemented, this program is estimated to reduce urban NOx emission by >39%, urban CO by >51%, urban benzene by >48%, urban PM by >39%, total NOx by >35%, total VOCs by >46%.

The European Commission and national Governments calculate that the Auto Oil legislation will prevent many deaths especially in urban centers, as well as cases of chronic and acute bronchitis, and other respiratory problems.

Auto Oil Directives Program Goals

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

european union air pollution legislation primary air pollutant targets
Ground Level Ozone

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Nitrogen Oxide (NOX)

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Particulate Matter (PM)

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Benzene

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

European Union Air Pollution Legislation- Primary Air Pollutant Targets

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

european union primary air pollutant criteria standards
EU Ambient Air Quality Targets

POLLUTANT STANDARD VALUE * STANDARD DEADLINE

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

8-hour Average (10 mg/m3)

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

1-hour mean (health) (200 mg/m3) (exceedence limit 18times ) 1 Jan. 2010

Annual Arithmetic Mean (health) (40 mg/m3) 1 Jan. 2010

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)

Annual Arithmetic Mean (Vegetation) (30 µg/m3) 19 July 2001

Ozone (O3)

1-hour mean (180 µg/m3)

8-hour Average (120 µg/m3)

Particulate (PM 10)Particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less

Stage I: 24-hour Average (Health) 50 µg/m3 (exceedence limit 35times ) 1 Jan. 2005

Stage I: Annual Arithmetic Mean (Health) 40 µg/m3 1 Jan. 2005

Stage II: 24-hour Average (Health) 50 µg/m3 1 Jan. 2010

Stage II: Annual Arithmetic Mean (Health) 20 µg/m3 (exceedence limit 7times ) 1 Jan. 2010

Particulate (PM 2.5)Particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less

Not modelled

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Annual Arithmetic Mean (20µg/m3) 19 July 2005

24-hour Average (125 µg/m) (exceedence limit 3times ) 1 Jan. 2005

1-hour Average (350µg/m3) (exceedence limit 24 times ) 1 Jan. 2005

Benzene

Annual Arithmetic Mean (upper value) (16µg/m3)

Annual Arithmetic Mean (lower value) (2.5µg/m3)

Lead

Annual Arithmetic Mean (health) (0,5µg/m3) 1 Jan.2005 or 1 Jan. 2010

* Parenthetical value is an approximately equivalent concentration.

European Union- Primary Air Pollutant Criteria Standards

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

overview of current eu vehicle and engine emission control programs
Passenger Cars and Light Duty Vehicles

Euro II-IV

Heavy-Duty On-Road

Euro II-V (Stage 1-2)

Heavy Duty Off-Road/Non-Road

Motorcycles

Marine

Handheld/Other

Overview of Current EU Vehicle and Engine Emission Control Programs

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

auto oil i directives general overview
Fuel

Requires all EU Refiners/ Importers to meet a max sulfur levels 350ppm in 2000 and 50ppm in 2005 plus 10 ppm availability,

Requires all EU Refiners/ Importers to meet new limits for cetane, density, distillation, PAH by 1 Jan 2000. Future specs review 2005.

Flexibility includes

Derogation option for sulfur due to economic hardship(2000)

Marketing of fuels with more stringent environmental specifications allowed to further protect health or environment in specific area

Tax incentives

Review clause

Auto Oil I Directives -General Overview
  • Vehicle
    • Requires New Passenger cars and Light Commercial Vehicles to meet new exhaust and evaporative emission limits for 2000 and 2005
    • Applies to all vehicles post 2000
    • Higher durability distance from 2005
    • OBD
    • New specifications for test reference fuels
    • Revised and new testing procedures
      • Evaporative emissions test procedures,
      • New low temperature test
      • In use conformity testing
    • Flexibility includes
      • Review clause

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

fuel directives compliance
Member States are obligated to transpose into national legislation and comply with the EU Directives by 1 July 1999 or fined

Member States establish own monitoring programs either governmental or industry run e.g. UK. New EU wide CEN monitoring standard in pipeline

Physical and Paper audits and inspections are carried out at Member State level by local authorities

Audits and Inspections

Review compliance with legislative specifications

Fuel Directives Compliance

REQUIREMENTS APPLY TO ALL PARTIES IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

  • Requirements apply:
      • Refinery Level Requirements
      • Downstream Compliance Requirements
  • Record Keeping and Reporting and Retention
    • Product Transfer Documents
    • Test Records in house and sent to local authority

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide20

WHAT NEXT: 2000 & beyond

2002 Motorcycle

Emissions Directive

2001 Clean Air For

Europe (CAFÉ):

2003 Non-road

Emissions Legislation

Euro V (HDV)

Low sulfur fuels

Bio-fuels

Water based fuels

LPG

Natural gas

Fuel Cell

2001 MTBE

Risk Assessment:

completion

2004 Air Quality

Daughter

Directives - PM 2.5

2004 European

Enlargement

(1st wave countries)

2001 Commission

proposals

(AOII, MTBE, sulphur)

for Dir. 98/70 2005

2005 New Fuel Quality

and Emissions (Euro IV)

Specifications

2000 - 2005

Implementation Begins - Enhancements Expected

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide21

EU Auto Oil II Predictions

EU Auto Oil II Modeling results predict:

  • Large improvement in urban air quality by 2010, althoughCO2 emissions will continue to riseat least until 2005 before stabilizing.
  • Particulates, regional tropospheric ozone precursors (NOx -and VOCs), benzene and NO2 remain problematic.
  • The number of inhabitants living in citieswhere the air quality objectives for four or more pollutants are exceeded simultaneously will still reach 4.5 million in 2010.
  • Road transport will still have a major influenceon urban air quality in those cases where exceedances are predicted.

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

au to oil legislation benefits
Auto Oil Legislation Benefits

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide23

EU Fuel Quality Overview

  • Past and Current Legislative/Policy Developments:
  • Ambient air quality targets (Framework legislation and daughter directives e.g SOx, NOX, NO2, PM, Lead and PAH)
  • Auto-Oil I, II Legislation (auto emissions and fuel quality)
  • Kyoto Protocol and climate change policy including: Voluntary CO2 agreement with ACEA, JAMA, KAMA (120g/km CO2 emissions for average vehicle) and emissions trading scheme
  • Other legislation/policy developments: CAFÉ, National Emission Ceilings, Motorcycle Emissions Directive, MTBE Risk Assessment, Enlargement
  • Current Major Issues and Alternative Fuel Developments:
  • Amendments to directive 98/70/EC on fuel quality and fuel Quality Monitoring and increase in tax incentive use
  • Alternative Fuels Communication with Bio-fuels Directive
  • CEN – CEN 589/228, FAME standard, development of ethanol standard
  • LPG, CNG, water based fuels and bio-fuels used across Europe

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide24

EU Gasoline & Diesel Specs – 2002

* Review clause: By end 2005 the European Commission will carry out a comprehensive review of the other non-sulfur

parameters and alternative fuels and see if new specifications are necessary, the outcome of the various commitments

with the auto-manufacturers to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars, the effect of metallic additives on new pollution abatement technologies, and the final date of on-road and non-road diesel 10ppm introduction.

**2005 introduction of 10ppm sulphur – Fuel must be geographically available in an appropriately balanced manner

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

eu fuel specs outstanding issues
Tax incentives:

How do we ensure geographic coverage and no product shortages in countries with lower or no tax incentives? Large difference between tax incentives for 50 ppm fuels e.g. 1.5 - 4.5 Ec/l

Unleaded example has shown that geographic balance can be ensured with tax incentives and that Southern countries have used tax incentives for unleaded market penetration

Non-Road:

Accounts for 8.5% diesel volume (Concawe 2001) but in some cases <50% transport emissions.

7 (UK, IL, FR, NL, BE, FL, ES) out of 15 countries (Concawe 2001) allow use of dyed/marked lower duty 2,000ppm heating oil.

How do we ensure farmers continue to receive tax incentives? And that distribution systems function?

EU Fuel Specs Outstanding Issues

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

penetration of uls fuels
Penetration of ULS Fuels

Example: Swedish Diesel Market

Source: ECMT 2001

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide27

EU Issues: Tax Incentives

50 & 10ppm Sulphur Fuels

0.3Ec/l 50ppm Petrol (2001)

5.7Ec/l 10ppm Diesel (2001)

National Tax incentives

For 50ppm sulphur

fuels

3.9Ec/l

Diesel (2000)

4.5Ec/l 50ppm Petrol (2000), Diesel (2001)

10ppm Diesel Available (2000)

National Tax incentives

For 50ppm & 10 ppm

sulphur fuels (and or availability)

10ppm Petrol (2002)

10ppm Diesel (2002)

2.5Ec/l 50ppm Diesel (1993)

2.4 Ec/l

Diesel (1999)

.076Ec/l 50ppm Petrol (2000), Diesel (2001)

3.1Ec/l

50ppm Diesel (1993)

1.5EC/l 10ppm Petrol/Diesel (2003)

1.5Ec/l 50ppm Petrol/Diesel (2001)

50ppm Diesel Available (2000)

10ppm Petrol/Diesel incentive (2004)

4 Ec/l

Petrol/Diesel (2001)

2 Ec/l

Petrol/Diesel (2001)

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide28

From Air Quality to CO2

EU moving from air quality concerns to climate change concerns.

Transport sector largest CO2 emitter and biggest challenge to meeting Kyoto Protocol Commitments e.g. Lowering GHG emissions to at least 5% below 1990 levels during 2008-2012.

Conventional fuels, vehicles and transport patterns greatest impact thus policy focus. Non-road and marine fuels increasing % of transport pollution

EU CO2 voluntary agreement with European, Korean and Japanese auto makers will be reviewed.

Promotion of alternative fuels especially renewables and fuel cell for climate change and energy security reasons.

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide29

Alternative

Fuels 27 Mtoe (1.7%)

LPG

EtOH

Natural Gas

Bio: Diester

ETBE

Road Transportation Fuels World 2000

1550 Mtoe*

*Not including petrochemical sector, airplanes

Diesel

600

Gasoline*

950

*including MTBE

Source: IFP / Axens

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide30

CONSIDERING NEW OPTIONS:

EMISSIONS EVALUATION

Evaluation of the emissions potential of different alternative fuels in the year 2005 (EURO 4) in passenger cars and light duty vehicles applications

Source: Auto-Oil II / Working Group 3 report on alternative fuels

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide31

CO2 Benefits: Alternative Fuels

Source: IEA - Carmen Difiglio 2002

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide32

“Communication on Alternative Fuels for Transportation and on a set of measures to promote the use of bio-fuels”:

  • Strategy:Security of supply, low environmental impact and fuel efficiency, high level of safety, and continued low overall cost of driving, new source of income and employment for rural areas.
  • Result:Council and Parliament agree on voluntary targets for Member States to increase share of fuel pool by 2020 of bio-fuels ( 5% based on energy content), natural gas ( 10%), hydrogen ( 5%).
  • Result: Exemption of bio-fuels from excise duty application

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

simultaneous outstanding issues eu alternative fuels policy
Simultaneous Outstanding Issues: EU Alternative Fuels Policy

Assumptions made: 1) Based on EU total automotive fuel demand of 270mton in 2005, 283mton in 2010 (Europia figures)

2) Natural gas vol% in pool will also be calculated by energy content as in the case of bio-fuels

Source: Data and estimates compiled by Lyondell Europe

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide34

“Communication on Alternative Fuels for Transportation and on a set of measures to promote the use of bio-fuels”:

  • Main Market and Economic Issues:
  • Production and process efficiency varies
  • Is set aside land enough (5.6 million ha = 1.2-5% potential of total European petroleum product consumption)
  • Environmental degradation factors e.g. fertilisers, pesticides, rural air quality, soil erosion, water pollution
  • Farming intensification practices, mono-cultivation/crops aesthetic, GMO’s????
  • Economics and price (in some case liquid bio fuel production cost 3 times cost of conventional fuels)
  • Large subsidies necessary yet conventional low sulphur fuels already taking chunk of current treasury revenue
  • Imports issue: Can we meet 2-5% bio-fuel goals domestically?
  • Does it make sense to invest in bio-fuels when fuel cells are on the horizon and other alternative fuels e.g. CNG, LPG are already on the market?

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide35

“Communication on Alternative Fuels for Transportation and on a set of measures to promote the use of bio-fuels”:

  • Main Vehicle, Environmental and Emissions Issues:
  • Full environmental or air quality benefit analysis by Commission

lacking e.g. no programme or stakeholder process

  • Real integrated policy approach between existing EU policy e.g. potential conflicts with CAP, Dir 98/70, ozone air quality targets
  • CO2 emissions data contradictory and controversial
  • Changes to gasoline engines necessary for greater than 10% ethanol issues related to corrosion properties
  • Volatility issues linked to ethanol e.g. handling and VOC emissions
  • Bio-diesel oil blends can create engine issues and greater NOx emissions e.g. Germany unregulated pure cooking oil use
  • No fuel quality specs exist for bio-ethanol

Question: Will the Bio-fuels directive approach set a precedent for future alternative fuel policies? Should the Communication on Alternative Fuels cover more than just natural gas and hydrogen?

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

european union fuel quality policy lessons learned
Harmonisation of Member State laws under EU legislation is essential

Air quality objectives/targets must be set and evaluated regularly

Fuel and vehicle must be treated as a system

Stakeholder process between government and industry fundamental

Full scientific and technical assessment needed for acceptability

- European Union Fuel Quality Policy- Lessons Learned

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

european union fuel quality policy lessons learned1
Fiscal incentives for market penetration very useful

Unintended Consequences of Clean Fuels legislation

Supply: Cleaner Diesel and Gasoline

Age of vehicle fleet: Differences in climate across Europe

Cost: Different excise taxation and VAT structure across EU leading to price differences,

Competition between clean conventional fuels and alternative fuels for tax incentives

- European Union Fuel Quality Policy- Lessons Learned

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide38

Conclusions: EU Policy Hot Spots

  • Main Vehicle, Environmental and Emissions Issues in pipeline:
    • 98/70 Review work
    • Fuel Quality monitoring standard adoption June 2003
    • Non-Road emissions and fuels legislation
    • Final adoption Bio-fuels Legislation andtax exemptions
    • CEN standards on bio-ethanol
    • Alternative Fuels discussions linked to climate change and energy security policy
    • Marine fuels
    • Climate change and GHG emissions trading legislation
    • Central and Eastern European Accession countries and implementation of EU legislation

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide39

Enlargement & Fuel Quality

Latvia - CEN 1993 (CEN 1999 by 1/1/04)

Lithuania - CEN 1993 (CEN 1999 by 1/1/03)

Estonia - CEN 1993 (CEN 1999 by 1/1/04)

Bulgaria - CEN 1993, CEN 1999

Romania – CEN 1993, CEN 1999

Malta – Dir. 98/70 Transition period

Turkey CEN 1993 (CEN 1999 by 1/1/05)

1996

“Euro 2”

2000

“Euro 3”

2005

“Euro 4”

2009

10 ppm

2004

Slovenia - Dir.98/70 2000

Slovakia - Dir.98/70 2000

Czech Rep - Dir. 98/70 2000

Hungary - Dir. 98/70 2000

Poland – Dir. 98/70 (1/1/03)

Cyprus – Dir. 98/70 (1/1/03?)

Source: IFQC’s A Summary of Worldwide Automotive Fuels Specifications, January 2003

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide40

Country following spec EN 228:1993 for gasoline and EN590:1993 for diesel

Country following spec EN 228:1999 for gasoline and EN 590:1999 for diesel

Country following Former Soviet Union specifications

Little to no data

ESTONIA

Other FSU Countries

LATVIA

RUSSIA

GEORGIA

LITHUANIA

BELARUS

ARMENIA

POLAND

UKRAINE

AZERBAIJAN

CZECH REP.

SLOVAKIA

MOLDAVIA

KAZAKHSTAN

HUNGARY

SLOVENIA

ROMANIA

KYRGYZSTAN

BOSNIA

CROATIA

BULGARIA

TADJIKISTAN

YUGOSLAVIA

TUKMENISTAN

MACEDONIA

TURKEY

ALBANIA

UZBEKISTAN

CYPRUS

Eastern/Central European &

FSU Fuel Specs

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide41

ESTONIA

Other FSU Countries

LATVIA

RUSSIA

GEORGIA

LITHUANIA

BELARUS

ARMENIA

POLAND

UKRAINE

AZERBAIJAN

CZECH REP.

SLOVAKIA

MOLDAVIA

KAZAKHSTAN

HUNGARY

SLOVENIA

ROMANIA

KYRGYZSTAN

BOSNIA

CROATIA

BULGARIA

TADJIKISTAN

YUGOSLAVIA

TUKMENISTAN

MACEDONIA

TURKEY

ALBANIA

UZBEKISTAN

CYPRUS

Country still using leaded gasoline

Country that completed lead phase out

Eastern/Central European & FSU

Lead Phase-Out

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide42

Conclusions:EU Policy Hot Spots

  • EU fuel policy focus through 2003:
    • 10ppm sulphur conventional fuels (98/70/EEC) by 2005/2009 (diesel to be confirmed); Other parameters e.g. PAH, Metallic additives etc.. after 2005 Review [adopted Fall 2002]
    • Non-Road 10/50ppm sulphur diesel by 2009 [?]
    • Bio-fuels indicative levels by 2005 [adopted March 2003]
    • Alternative Fuels [DG Env. Study 2002; Review 2005 DGTREN Contact Group focus natural gas and hydrogen]
    • Fiscal Incentives will increase with Mineral Oil Taxation Directive
    • On the horizon: Heating oil and marine bunker fuels with lower than 1,000ppm sulphur?
    • Energy Security and Climate Change will continue to be the main drivers….

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

slide43

Thank you! Any Questions?

Sandrine Dixson-Declève

Director, Europe and Africa

International Fuel Quality Center

[email protected]

SILAQ Meeting - Sofia, 9 April 2003

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