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Carbon NANOTUBES de carbones. La prochaine vague technologique. Table des matières. What are Carbon Nanotubes?. Properties of CNTs. Applications futures possibles. How do we produce them?. Problèmes . Références. Questions???. Qu’est-ce qu’un nanotube de carbone?. What is it?.

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Carbon nanotubes de carbones

Carbon NANOTUBES de carbones

La prochaine vague technologique

Table des mati res
Table des matières

  • What are Carbon Nanotubes?

  • Properties of CNTs

  • Applications futures possibles

  • How do we produce them?

  • Problèmes

  • Références

  • Questions???

What is it
What is it?

  • Iijima discovered them in 1991

  • Feuille de graphite roullée en un cylindre

  • Liens sp2

  • SWNT vs MWNT

  • Forces de Van der Vaals tiennent les épaisseurs ensemble.

  • End(s) in the shape of buckyballs

Comment les reconna tre
Comment les reconnaître?

  • Les CNTs sont identifiés par un couple d’entier (n,m)

Caract ristiques des cnts
Caractéristiques des CNTs

  • SWNT diameter: 0.4 to 3 nm

    • 100 000 times smaller than a hair

  • MWNT diameter: ~1.4 to 100 nm

  • Length: up to several millimeters at best, usually a few microns

Properties of cnts
Properties of CNTs

Mechanical properties

  • Young’s modulus of ~1TPa for SWNT and up to 1,28TPa for MWNT

    • Steel is at ~0.2TPa…

    • Wow!

  • Highest tensile strength ever mesured

    • Bone – 130

    • Steel - ~800

    • Kevlar – 3620

    • CNT – 63 000

-une paille qui se déplie

Properties of cnts1
Properties of CNTs

Electrical properties

  • 3cas: -armchair SWNTare metals

    -(n-m) divisible by 3 ar semiconductors with tiny gap

    -others are semiconductors with ban gap depends on (diameter)-1

  • Semblable pour les MWNTs

  • The nanotubes conduct current ballistically (without scattering) -phonons propagate easily along a CNT

    -high current with virtually no heating

  • Superconductivity observed at low pressure (0.55K)

  • Expérimentalement, SWNT peut supporter jusqu’à 109A/cm2

    pour un métal normal, c’est seulement ~ 105A/cm2


Applications of cnts
Applications of CNTs


  • Conductive and high-strength composites;

  • Field emission displays and radiation sources;

  • Lampes basée sur les nanotubes;(>8000 hours)

  • One-dimensional electronics

  • Energy storage and energy conversion devices;

    • Propriétés électrochimiques des CNTs permet la création de supercondensateurs

    • Electromechanical actuators might be used in robots…eventually

Applications of cnts1
Applications of CNTs


  • Nanometer-sized semiconductor devices

  • Vestes anti-balles

  • Média d’entreposage d’hydrogène;

  • Anti-earthquake buildings

  • Production de rayons X et micro-ondes

  • Supercapacitors

  • Cancer treatment (seen in a previous presentation)

Cnt production
CNT production

  • Laser abblation

  • Chemical vapor deposition

  • Arc discharge

  • Plasma torch

Cnt production1
CNT production

Carbon arc discharge

  • 2 carbon electrodes (3 and 4) vaporized with catalityc metal

  • Applied voltage causes plasma between electrodes

  • Arc-electrode interaction phenomena limitations

Cnt production2
CNT production

Plasma torch

  • Plasma torch: MegaWatt power scale in industry

  • Chercheur de McGill (J-L Meunier):

    • Possibility to size-up the system

Probl mes
Problèmes 

Problems with cnts
Problems with CNTs


  • Cost of production -high purity: 750$/g

    - with impurities: 60$/g

  • Diversité des nanotubes

    • No method available to effectively separate them and/or produce CNT with only one twist

  • Limitations expérimentales dans la production

    • Par exemple la vitesse d’évaporation du tungstene sur les électrodes

Problems with cnts1
Problems with CNTs


  • Méthode d’assemblage

    complexes pour des

    «réseaux» de nanotubes

  • Moins de problèmes avec les MWNTs

  • Multiton production in early 1990s

    • Hyperion Catalysis International Inc

  • In Japan, plans for 120 ton/year of MWNT at 75$/kg

  • R f rences

    • Physical properties of carbon nanotubes, ADAMS II, T., (2000) (

    • Carbon nanotubes and related structures:New materials for the 21st century, HARRIS, P.J.F., Am. J. Phys, Vol 72, no.3, p.415, March 2004

    • Atomic chiken wire, LOUIE, S.,(

    • Carbon nanotube,  “Wikipedia”, (

    • Carbon nanotubes roll on, Physics Web, (june 2000) ([novembre2005]

    R f rences 2

    • Multiwall carbon nanotubes, Physics Web, (june 2000) ([novembre2005]

    • Carbon nanotubes from the dissociation of C2Cl4 using a dc thermal plasma torch, HARBEC D.,MEUNIER J-L., GUO L., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, pp.232-239,2121-2126,(2004)

    • Fullerene synthesis in the graphite electreode arc process:local plasma characteristics and correlation with yield, Saïdane K, et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, pp.232-239,(2004)

    • Carbon Nanotubes--the Route Toward Applications, Science, Vol 297,no.5582, pp 787-792


    Maintenant c’est votre tour de parler!