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The Millennial Generation: A Generation Split by Ability Level. NCADE Western Regional Conference April 12, 2007. Terri Manning Bobbie Everett Cheryl Roberts. A Study Funded by the Workforce Development Board.

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The millennial generation a generation split by ability level l.jpg

The Millennial Generation: A Generation Split by Ability Level

NCADE Western Regional Conference April 12, 2007

Terri Manning

Bobbie Everett

Cheryl Roberts

A Study Funded by the Workforce Development Board

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It May Take a Village to Raise a Child, but it Takes a Society to Raise a Generation

Economic Conditions

Societal Norms

Political Events

Major Crises

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Each Generation

  • Consists of approximately a 20-year span (not all demographers and generation researchers agree on the exact start/stop dates)

  • Has a unique set of values

  • Reacts to the generation before them

  • Looks at their generation as the standard of comparison

  • Looks at the next generation skeptically “these kids today…”

  • Those born on the “cusp” may have a blended set of characteristics

  • They are either idealistic, reactive, civic or adaptive

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The Veterans (also known as the Silent Generation or the Greatest Generation) 1925–1942 (adaptive)

  • Core Values

    • Dedication

    • Hard Work

    • Conformity

    • Law and Order

    • Patience

    • Delayed Reward

    • Duty before Pleasure

    • Adherence to Rules

    • Honor

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The Veterans

  • Children of the Great Depression and WWII, this generation decided not to attack the institutions created by the generation before them, but instead, as global thinkers, they chose to focus on improving and refining them so that they could be good for everyone, not just a select few.

  • The overall goal was not to change the system, but to work within it.

  • While economically very successful, they were also the inventors of "the midlife crises" probably because they didn't get a chance to enjoy the freedoms of their youth.

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The Veterans

Important Events

  • Lindbergh Completes First Transatlantic Flight

  • Stock Market Crash

  • Depression

  • The New Deal

  • Social Security

  • Pearl Harbor

  • The End of WWII

  • FDR Dies

  • Korean War

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Cultural Memorabilia for the Veterans

  • Kewpie Dolls

  • Mickey Mouse

  • Flash Gordon

  • Radio

  • Wheaties

  • Tarzan

  • Jukeboxes

  • Blondie

  • The Lone Ranger

  • The McCarthy Era

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The Veteran Generation Childhood

  • Raised by the GI Generation (civic)

  • Large families (3-5 children)

  • Strong sense of extended family (same town or home)

  • Grandparents in the home

  • Average 10-year-old spent 4-6 hours daily with a significant adult role model

  • Rural society

  • Apprenticeship businesses and farming

  • Perception of the world as “safe”

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The Baby Boomers 1943–1964 (the largest generation, idealist)

  • Core Values

    • Optimism

    • Team Orientation

    • Personal Gratification

    • Health and Wellness

    • Personal Growth

    • Youth

    • Work

    • Involvement

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Baby Boomers

Important Events

  • Rosa Parks

  • First Nuclear Power Plant

  • The Civil Rights Act

  • Cuban Missile Crisis

  • John Glen Orbits the Earth

  • Martin Luther King Leads March on Washington, D.C.

  • President John F. Kennedy Assassination

  • National Organization for Women Founded

  • Martin Luther King Assassination

  • Robert F. Kennedy Assassination

  • Watergate

  • Kent State Massacre

  • Vietnam War

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Cultural Memorabilia for Baby Boomers

  • Television

  • The Ed Sullivan Show

  • Barbie Dolls

  • Fallout Shelters

  • Poodle Skirts

  • Pop Beads

  • Slinkies

  • TV Dinners

  • Hula Hoops

  • The Peace Sign

  • Laugh In

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The Baby Boomer Childhood

  • Divorce reached a low in 1960 of 9%

  • Families moved due to GI Bill, GI housing and industrialization

  • First generation to live miles from extended family

  • Family size smaller (2-3 children)

  • Few grandparents in the home

  • Moms stayed home

  • Dads carpooled

  • Children spent significant time with adult role models

  • Perception of the world as “safe”

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Baby-boomer Results

  • Very idealistic - banned together and walked through life with their fists held high

  • Generation gap occurred between them and their parents

  • Captured phrases like “why be normal” and “question authority”

  • They weren’t friendly toward authority figures

  • Did not get along with their parents and swore they would not raise their kids like they were raised

  • As adults - work an average of 55 hours per week

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The Gen Xers 1965–1982

  • A Lost Generation… A Nomadic Generation…..

  • Half the Size of the Baby Boom (reactive)

  • Core Values

    • Dedication

    • Hard Work

    • Conformity

    • Law and Order

    • Patience

    • Delayed reward

    • Duty before pleasure

    • Adherence to rules

    • Honor

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Gen X

Important Events

  • Women’s Liberation Protests

  • Watergate Scandal

  • Energy Crisis begins

  • Tandy and Apple Market PCs

  • Mass Suicide in Jonestown

  • Three Mile Island

  • US Corporations begin Massive Layoffs

  • Iran Hostage Crisis

  • John Lennon Shot and Killed

  • Ronald Reagan Inaugurated

  • Challenger Disaster

  • Exxon Valdez Oil Tanker Spill

  • HIV

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Cultural Memorabilia for Gen X

  • The Brady Bunch

  • Pet Rocks

  • Platform Shoes

  • The Simpsons

  • Evening Soaps (Dallas and Dynasty)

  • ET

  • Cabbage Patch Dolls

  • Super-hero Cartoons on TV (He-man)

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Generation X

  • This is the conscientious, extremely pragmatic, self-sufficient generation that has a ruthless focus on the bottom-line.

  • Born and raised at a time when children were at the bottom of our social priorities, Gen Xers learned that they could only count on one thing - themselves. As a result, they are very "me" oriented.

  • They are not active voters, nor are they deeply involved in politics in general.

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The Gen X Childhood

  • Divorce reached an all-time high

  • Single-parent families became the norm

  • Latch-key kids were a major issue of the time

  • Children not as valued – looked at as a hardship

  • Families spread out (miles apart)

  • Family size = 1.7 children (many only-children)

  • Perception of the world as “unsafe”

  • Average 10 year old spent 14 ½ minutes a day with a significant adult role model

  • Parents looked around and said – we need to do this better

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Generation Next (civic)

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The Echo Boom/Millennials…

  • The Millennials are almost as large as the baby boom-some say larger - depending on how you measure them (approx. 81M).

  • The Millennials are the children born between 1982 and 2002 (peaked in 1990), a cohort called by various names:

Echo Boom

Generation Y


Net Generation

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  • This generation is civic-minded, much like the previous GI Generation.

  • They are collectively optimistic, long-term planners, high achievers with lower rates of violent crime, teen pregnancy, smoking and alcohol use than ever before.

  • This generation believes that they have the potential to be great and they probably do. We are looking to them to provide us with a new definition of citizenship.

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The Millennial Childhood

  • The most monumental financial boom in history.

  • Steady income growth through the 1990’s.

  • Still great disparity between races.

  • Saw their parents lose all their stocks and mutual funds (college funds) during the early 2000’s.

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Demographic Trends

  • The Baby Boomers chose to become older parents in the 1980s while Gen X moms reverted back to the earlier birth-age norm, which meant that two generations were having babies.

  • In 1989, 29 percent of the 4.4 million live births were to women aged 30 and older.

  • Millennials have older largely Baby Boomer parents: Average age of mothers at birth at an all time high of 27 in 1997.

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Demographic Trends, cont.

  • Smaller families: Only children will comprise about 10% of the population.

  • More parental education: 1 in 4 has at least one parent with a college degree.

  • Kids born in the late ‘90s are the first in American history whose mothers are better educated than their fathers by a small margin.

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Demographic Trends – Changing Diversity

  • Increase in Latino immigration - Latino women tend to have a higher fertility rates than non-Latino women.

  • Nearly 35% of Millennials are nonwhite or Latino.

  • Twenty percent of this generation has at least one parent who is an immigrant.

  • Millennials have become the most racially and ethnically diverse generation in US History.

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Safety Issues

The Safest Generation

  • This generation was buckled up in car seats, wore bike helmets, elbow and knee pads when skating, and were the inspiration for “Baby on Board” signs.

    The Well-Being of U.S. Teens

  • Mortality Rate for US teens aged 15–19 declined from 1960 to 1997.

    -Teens are having fewer accidents than Boomers

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Major Influencing Factors

  • Their parents

  • The self-esteem movement

  • The customer service movement

  • Gaming and technology

  • Casual communication

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Parenting Millennials

  • This generation is being parented by well-educated, over-involved adults who participate in “deliberate parenting.” They have outcomes in mind.

  • Boomers were the first generation to be thrown out in to an unsafe world as adolescents.

  • The 60’s and 70’s were very scary and many of us felt unprepared for it.

  • We were naïve and didn’t have enough tools in our tool box to deal with it.

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Baby Boomers as Parents

  • Boomers rebelled against the parenting practices of their parents.

  • Strict discipline was the order of the day for boomers.

  • They made conscious decisions not to say “because I told you so” or “because I’m the parent and you’re the child.”

  • Boomers became more “friendly” with their children. They wanted to have open lines of communication and a relationship with them.

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Baby Boomers as Parents

  • They explained things to their children, (actions, consequences, options, etc.) – they wanted them to learn to make informed decisions.

  • They allowed their children to have input into family decisions, educational options and discipline issues.

  • We told them “just because it is on television doesn’t mean it’s true” or “you can’t believe everything you read.”

  • We wanted them to question authority.

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The Result

  • Millennials have become “a master set of negotiators” who are capable of rational thought and decision-making skills at young ages.

  • They will negotiate with anyone including their parents, teachers and school administrators.

  • Some call this “arguing.”

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Helicopter Parents

  • Helicopter Parent (n)A parent who hovers over his or her children.

  • Or Snowplow parent: Parents who clear the way for their children

  • ……these (echo) boomers are confident, achievement-oriented and used to hovering "helicopter" parents keeping tabs on their every move. (Anthony DeBarros, "New baby boom swamps colleges," USA Today, January 2, 2003)

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Helicopter Parent go to College

  • A new generation of over-involved parents are flooding campus orientations, meddling in registration and interfering with students' dealings with professors, administrators and roommates, school officials say.

  • Some of these hovering parents, whose numbers have been rising for several years, are unwittingly undermining their children's chances of success, campus administrators say. Now, universities and colleges are moving rapidly to build or expand programs aimed at helping parents strike a better balance.

Colleges Ward Off Overinvolved ParentsBy Sue ShellenbargerFrom The Wall Street Journal Online

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Baby Boomer Parents have been their Biggest Cheerleaders

  • Millennials expect and need praise.

  • Will mistake silence for disapproval.

  • Millennials expect feedback.

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Parental Care in the Millennial Era

  • Today’s typical family is spending more, not less, time with kids.

  • Smaller families mean more time with each child.

  • Fathers are spending more time with children.

  • Less housework is being done.

  • There is a strong connection between the social lives of parents and kids.

  • They get along with their parents and share their parents’ values.

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Focus on Self-esteem

  • This generation was the center of the “self-esteem” movement.

  • 9,068 books were written about self-esteem and children during the 80s and 90s (there were 485 in the 70s).

  • The state of California spent millions studying the construct and published a document entitled “Toward a State of Self-esteem.”

  • Yet they can’t escape the angst of adolescence – they still feel disconnected, question their existence, purpose and the meaning of life. They want to feel valued and cared about.

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Focus on Customer Service

  • Expect access (24/7)

  • Expect things to work like they are supposed to

  • If they don’t “that is your problem”

  • They want what they have paid for

  • Everything comes with a toll-free number or web address

  • Want “Gateway Go Back” in classes

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Add the Impact of Gaming

  • Gaming has impacted children

    • The game endings changed based on the decisions children made (Role Playing Games [Legend of Zelda, Final Fantasy, Chronotrigger]) impacting locus of control.

    • Involves a complex set of decision- making skills.

    • Teaches them to take multiple pieces of data and make decisions quickly.

    • Learning more closely resembles Nintendo, a trial and error approach to solving problems.

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We navigated our way through…..

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They navigated their way through…..

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  • This generation has been plugged in since they were babies.

  • They grew up with educational software and computer games.

  • They think technology should be free.

  • They want and expect services 24/7.

  • They do not live in an 8–5 world.

  • They function in an international world.

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Millennials Want to Learn

  • With technology

  • With each other

  • Online

  • In their time

  • In their place

  • Doing things that matter (most important)

Source: Achievement and the 21st Century Learner.

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Technology In School

  • Students are increasingly savvy when it comes to technology.

  • In general, students expect faculty to incorporate technology into their teaching and be proficient at it.

  • At the very least, communication via e-mail, access to online resources, PowerPoint presentations, Internet activities, discussion boards and electronic classrooms are expected.

  • Faculty will need to balance the use of technology with their own philosophies of teaching.

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Technology Use

  • Children under 6 years

    • 48% have used a computer

    • 27% (4-6 year-olds) use a computer daily

    • 39% use a computer several times a week

    • 30% have played computer games

  • Teens

    • 100% use the internet to seek information

    • 94% use the internet for school research

    • 41% use email and IM to contact teachers and schoolmates about school work

    • 81% email friends and relatives

    • 70% use IM to keep in touch

    • 56% prefer the internet to the telephone

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Characteristics of Today’s Children

  • 76% want to learn more about the world.

  • 28% of high school students access foreign news sources via the Internet.

  • 90% percent of children between ages 5 and 17 use computers.

  • Teens spend more time online using the Internet than watching television.

From: A Nation on the Move,

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Characteristics of Today’s Children

  • 94% of online teens use the Internet for school-related research.

  • 24% have created their own web pages.

  • 16% of teens are shareholders in the stock market.

  • Teens and college students combined spend nearly $400 billion a year.

  • The largest group of new users of the Internet from 2000-2002 were 2-5 year olds.34

From: A Nation on the Move,

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By age 21…..

  • It is estimated that the average child will have:

    • Spent 10,000 hours playing video games

    • Sent 200,000 emails

    • Spent 20,000 hours watching TV

    • Spent 10,000 hours on their cell phone

    • Spent under 5,000 hours reading

  • But these are issues of income. Will a child who grows up in a low income household have these same experiences?

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The “Information Age” Mindset

  • Students have never known life without the computer. It is an assumed part of life.

  • The Internet is a source of research, interactivity, and socializing (they prefer it over TV).

  • Doing is more important than knowing.

  • There is zero tolerance for delays.

  • The infrastructure and the lecture tradition of colleges may not meet the expectations of students raised on the Internet and interactive games.

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Cell Phone Technology

  • They all have cell phones and expect to be in contact 24/7.

  • Not a phone – a lifestyle management tool

  • Staying “connected” is essential.

  • Communication is a safety issue for parents.

  • Communication has become casual for students (IM, email and cell phones.

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What About 1st Generation Students?

  • Not all students will be proficient; first-generation and students from low income or working class families may have less experience.

  • Their experience with technology has been in arcades and minimally in school (poorer districts.)

  • They have not had the exposure to educational uses of technology.

  • We need another placement test – remedial keyboarding and technology.

  • Huge digital divide between the “haves” and the “have nots” based on income levels (class).

  • Digital divide is appearing in pre-K.

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Take a Look at a Large Urban K-12 School District

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Percent At or Above Grade Level

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Percent At or Above Grade Level

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K-8 End of Grade Tests in Reading/LiteracyPercent At or Above Grade Level

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K-8 End of Grade Tests in MathPercent At or Above Grade Level

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Once in College

  • Many of our students have had little academic success in the past.

  • They have been functioning below grade level since early elementary school.

  • Computer skills are also lower.

  • They come to college and we test them using a computer.

  • They test into remedial courses but don’t take them.

  • They enroll in courses they aren’t prepared for.

  • They also take distance ed classes (require more motivation and discipline).

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Of the 5,694 New Program-declared Students at CPCC in Fall 2004….

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Is It Different by Race?

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In School

  • They need to understand why they are doing what they are doing – objectives of classroom activities and projects.

  • They want to have input into their educational processes.

  • They want to be involved in meaningful activities, not mundane work.

  • They think it is cool to be smart.

  • They will respond well to programs like “learning communities and service learning.”

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Millennial Expectations

  • Clear expectations, explicit syllabi, and well structured assignments.

  • They expect detailed instructions and guidelines for completing assignments.

  • They have come from K-12 systems where students are actively involved in learning and classroom activities change often.

  • Teachers are helpers and facilitators of learning.

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Satisfaction with Online Courses

Source: Educause

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CPCC Students: How satisfied were you with the technical capabilities of the online course?

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CPCC Students: How satisfied are you with the format in which the online course was offered?

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Attitudes ……..

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Issues for Schools, Colleges and Universities in an Information Age

  • Plagiarism (consumer/creator blurring)

  • Cheating (must define it)

  • Cell Phone Policies

  • Typing vs. Handwriting

From: The Information Age Mindset: Changes in Students and Implications for Higher Education. By Jason L. Frand. Educause. Sep/Oct 2000.

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How are Millennials doing in school?

  • Teachers report that students are doing better academically.

  • The largest gains have been in math and science for ages 9 and 13.

  • Verbal skills show less clear


  • Millennials have corrected a late 80s decline in writing proficiency.

  • Reading scores show modest gains through the 90s.

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SAT Scores – a Twenty Year Reversal

Millennials Taking SAT

Highest SAT Scores in 35 Years

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What Do Businesses and Colleges/ Universities Need to Know about Today’s College Students and Graduates

Here Come the Girls

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Boys Issues in K-12

The Boys Project.

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Boys and Their Educational Choices

The Boys Project.

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First Time Freshman Enrollments by Gender – 50 Years (numbers in thousands)



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College Graduation Projections (numbers in thousands) (61% of degrees will go to women)





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  • Most popular college majors:

  • Medicine

  • Education/teaching

  • Business and marketing

  • Engineering

  • Law and politics

  • Computer science

  • Most sought after qualities in careers:

  • Idealistic and committed co-workers

  • Responsibility

  • Independence

  • Creativity

  • Most common job trends :

  • Seek security & benefits

  • Stay with company that offers a challenge

  • Multi-taskers

  • Change Careers

Source: Industry Week, March, 1998.

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Difference in Values

  • They have witnessed their baby boomer parents coming home from stressed jobs, exhausted, falling asleep at the dinner table; and don’t want that for themselves.

  • They are a generation who is interested in a life with value and meaning – they do not aspire to what the “boomers” aspire to – they want something different.

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True Multi-taskers

  • Millennials have lived programmed lives and are already quite capable of learning several jobs simultaneously and performing them admirably.

  • Millennials will change careers many times.

  • Retooling and recycling their skills and talents will become common.

  • To retain them, smart employers will encourage Millennials to try out different careers within the same company.

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Need for Services

  • It is estimated that 3 million Millennials have been diagnosed with ADHD and have been medication (80% are boys).

  • Within student populations, the number with disabilities has jumped from 3% to 9%.

    • Many have had individual education plans.

    • Many need testing services (quiet, separate).

    • Need to self-advocate to teachers.

    • Major transition from high school to college.

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2004 Research Study

  • Central Piedmont Community College’s Center for Applied Research was contracted to do this study by the Workforce Development Board.

    • Focus Groups were conducted.

    • An Online Survey was administered.

    • Data collected January–March 2004 from the University of NC at Charlotte, Central Piedmont Community College and Johnson C. Smith University.

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Characteristics They Look for in Teachers

  • At least 50% said:

    • Enthusiastic about the course/teaching

    • Are fun to be around

    • Provide intellectual challenges

    • Have flexible class policies

    • Are sensitive to your needs/feelings

    • Emphasize preparing for future career

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Working in Teams

  • How do you feel about working in teams?

    • I like it44.7%

    • Have no feelings about it25.9%

    • I don’t like it29.4%

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Working in Teams

  • In the classroom, do you do the following? 1 = never

    2 = rarely

    3 = sometimes

    4 = often

    Mean (sd)

    Are given “team grades” on working

    with others2.62 (.89)

    Write papers/do projects with others2.41 (.79)

    Study/do research in teams2.35 (.80)

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What Will You Do After Graduating?

  • Immediately get a job43%

  • Continue my education34%

  • Take some time off 5%

  • Marry/start a family 6%

  • Not sure 13%

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Career Field

  • How likely do you think it is that your first job out of college will be in your career field?

    • Somewhat Likely37.4%

    • Not Likely/Not Sure20.5%

    • Very Likely39.4%

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Salary Expectations

  • Realistically, what do you expect your starting salary will be when you begin working?


    • $15-20K 7.7%

    • $21-30K29.3%

    • $31-40K27.0%

    • $41-50K15.9%

    • $50K+ 7.0%

    • Not sure12.5%

Approximately 65% felt they would learn $40K or less

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Importance of Career Components

  • Elements thought to be very important

    Respected on the Job

    Opportunity for Professional Development

    Ability to Have an Impact on the World

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Importance of Career Components

  • Items thought to be somewhat important:

    Access to Information and Expression of Personal Opinion

    Having High Job Prestige

    Working with Inspiring Colleagues

    Geographic Location of Job

    Receive Guidance and Direction from Supervisor

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Importance of Career Components

  • Items thought to be somewhat important:

    Participating in Company Decisions

    Independence/Professional Autonomy

    Using Creativity on the Job

    Lots of Responsibility

    Flexible Work Hours

    Dress Code Appropriate to

    Work Environment

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Importance of Job Benefits

  • Benefits thought to be very important

    Health Insurance

    Salary Growth

    Plans like 401K

    Life Insurance


    Employer-paid Retirement

  • Benefits thought to be unimportant

    Stock Options

    Profit Sharing

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Jobs in Lifetime

  • How many jobs do you think you will hold in your lifetime?

    • 1-335.7%

    • 4-641.5%

    • 7-1016.5%

    • Over 106.2%

      64% expect to have 4 or more jobs

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  • Things they worry about frequently:Future Plans

  • Things they worry about occasionally: Transitioning to Life After College

    Finding a Job to Fulfill your Goals and Aspirations

    Money to Travel/for Hobbies

    Life After College

    Financial Debt

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  • Things they worry about occasionally:

    Home Ownership

    Paying Monthly Bills

    Finding a Job in Your Field

    Relationships After College

  • Things they don’t worry about at all:

    Being Penalized for No Job Experience

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Future Odds

  • The following % felt it was very likely that they would someday:

    Work for themselves/own business21%

    Have lifestyle they grew up with63%

  • 79% felt a two income household would be somewhat to very important in reaching their lifestyle goals?

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Quality of Life?

Rank order of items that contribute to a good quality of life

(% ranking item in top 3 on a scale of 1-8)

  • Having a secure future for my family 71.5%

  • Time to enjoy family/children 68.7%

  • Having family/children 63.2%

  • Having a great job 60.4%

  • Having good friends 55.2%

  • Having plenty of money 45.5%

  • Having plenty of free time 40.2%

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Your Generation in the Future

  • Someday, your generation will be raising kids, running corporations and occupying high political office. When that day comes, which areas of American life will be better, the same or worse than today because of your generation?

    • 3 = better

    • 2 = same

    • 1 = worse

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Areas they felt they would do better:TechnologyRace RelationsAreas they felt they would do about the same: EconomySchoolsArts/Culture Foreign AffairsAreas they felt they couldn’t improve on:GovernmentFamily LifeReligion Crime/Public Order

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Some are already in the workforce. What are they saying?

  • “The technology is too slow.”

  • “Just because I’m young doesn’t mean I should be given low pay and a poor work schedule.”

  • “I expect to be treated fairly.”

  • “We are inheriting a mess in the workforce – who got us there?”

  • “My dad worked 60 hours a week and then lost his pension – no way I’m doing that.”

  • “I can get my work done in 40 hours – sorry if you can’t.”

Charlotte Observer, Sunday, March 5, 2006.

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How They Will Push Us…

  • More independence in the workforce

  • Consumer-based fairness

  • Better technology

  • Enhanced professional development

  • Get rid of “that’s the way we’ve always done it”

  • Have more life balance

  • Re-establish priorities

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So How Do We Work With Them?

  • Because they have grown up in a different world, never assume that they know certain things like:

    • You don’t want to talk to their mother when they are having problems.

    • You don’t get points for showing up or an A for effort.

    • The definition of plagiarism and cheating.

    • It’s not appropriate to call the professor at home after 9pm.

    • They can’t use IM language in papers.

    • It’s not okay to email the professor 10 times a day.

    • That when they email you at 3am, you’re not sitting on the other end waiting to respond to them.

    • The business office (and most others) close at 5pm.

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Some Major Issues Worth Addressing

  • Some of them have been performing below grade level all their lives… and they may not know it (age of social promotion).

  • You may be the first strict grader they have encountered (will discourage them).

  • Many are not very “hardy.” Will quit or drop out because “it’s hard.”

  • They are very good consumers and will figure out a way to stay “under the radar.”

  • They are not good planners and will do everything late if allowed.

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Issues of Late Registration

  • Tracked four cohorts

    • Those who participated in pre-registration (in spring for fall)

    • Those registered one full week before fall term

    • Those registered by the first week of class

    • Those who registered during drop/add (not schedule adjusters)

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What Should Institutions Do (In the Classroom)?

  • Develop policies and practices around appropriate communication (by department).

  • Give them electronic access to as much as is philosophically possible.

  • Draw a line on negotiations.

  • Give them definitions, boundaries and rules.

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What Should Institutions Do?

  • Stop existing in an 8-5 world.

  • Establish prerequisites for reading and writing intensive courses.

  • Force them to take developmental courses the first semester (don’t set them up to fail).

  • Stop letting them register late, hand in late work and procrastinate.

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What Should Institutions Do?

  • Don’t let them take online courses if they are not tech savvy and don’t possess the motivation to complete.

  • Train all faculty to detect and work with low performing students (especially in gate keeper courses).

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What Should Institutions Do?

  • Look into what is known about learning.

  • Try to actively engage them.

  • Engage them in group-oriented activities

    • Service learning

    • Study groups

    • Supplemental instruction

    • Learning communities

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What Should Institutions Do?

  • Create alterative ways for the low-tech students to come up to speed.

    • Basic keyboarding skills.

    • Special workshops or lab sessions on the basics.

    • Help them master software that “will do work for them.”

    • Get access to computers (refurbished, community projects, grants, etc.)

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