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FEASIBILITY OF SOCIO-ECONOMICS AND BIODIVERSITY NETWORK IN SUPPORT OF THE CONTROL OF HPAI AND OTHER EMERGING OR RE-EMERGING TRANSBOUNDARY DISEASES IN AFRICA Cheikh LY Service d’Economie Rurale et Gestion Ecole Inter-Etats des Sciences et Médecine Vétérinaires EISMV – DAKAR, SENEGAL

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Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

FEASIBILITY OF SOCIO-ECONOMICS AND BIODIVERSITY NETWORK

IN SUPPORT OF THE CONTROL OF HPAI AND OTHER EMERGING OR

RE-EMERGING TRANSBOUNDARY DISEASES IN AFRICA

Cheikh LY

Service d’Economie Rurale et Gestion

Ecole Inter-Etats des Sciences

et Médecine Vétérinaires

EISMV – DAKAR, SENEGAL

Consultant for Alive

Bamako Subregional Stakeholders’ Workshop


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

1. Context

  • Ongoing consultation launched by Alive Secretariat in collaboration with FAO

    • FAO CVO and Senior Livestock policy officer

    • René Bessin and François Le Gall

    • Anni McLeod ; Joseph Domenech 

    • AHRS (3 sub-regions) + Socio-economic group at FAO

  • 1. Concept note and ToR for the Study

  • 2. Selection of the Consultants (4)

    • Cheikh Ly (team leader, West and Central Africa)

    • Anthony Mugisha (Eastern Africa)

    • Simbarashe Sibanda (Southern Africa)

    • Funso Sonaiya (West Africa)


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • a. Inception meeting – 18-22 Aug. 2008 – FAO HQ in Rome

  • b. Country visits – 1 to 25 September 2008

  • West Africa & Central Africa : Burkina, Cameroun,

    Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria (Ly & Sonaiya)

  • East Africa : Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda (Mugisha)

  • Southern Africa: Botswana, Malawi, South Africa, Zambia


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

c. Sub-regional Stakeholder Workshops :

Naïrobi – 15 – 16 October 2008

Bamako – 25 – 26 October 2008

Gaborone - ??

d. Report – Submission in November 2008

e. Alive EC – Sharm El Sheikh / Postponed


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

2. Objective of the work

Study the feasibility of

a socio-economics and

biodiversity network

in support of the control of HPAI

and

other emerging or re-emerging transboundary diseases

in Africa.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • Assess the need to have a socio-economics and

  • biodiversity network & propose a scheme

    • improve the understanding of the epidemiology of animal

    • diseases

    • facilitate risk analysis, decision making and policy design

    • to have a better monitoring of livestock production, trade

    • and consumption and animal health

    • get more attention from livestock policy makers

    • be able to assess the impact of change in policies

    • and regulation at the local community and national levels

  • Different layers of local, national and international institutions.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • Context : HPAI & other TADs

  • Construction of a “sanitary territory” with a common zoo-sanitary regulation

    • Règlement N° 7/CM/UEMOA

    • Process ECOWAS/OiE/EISMV towards regional legislation under ECOWAS Sponsorship

    • Ultimate need to be assessed for CEMAC


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

3. Rationale for a network

Four basic considerations are used to build a rationale:

1. The most effective way to reduce the costs of disease is to control

new outbreaks rapidly. Outbreak control needs to be implemented in a way

that is efficient, safe and environmentally sound while minimising damage

to value chains and livelihoods.

2. Biosecurity & structural changes to the poultry sector & erosion of genetic diversity.

3. HPAI control requires an efficient and transparent financing process and

a support system that not only helps farmers to recover from immediate

losses from outbreaks but also assists them and other value chain agents

to re-establish their operations and improve animal husbandry.

4. Comprehensive analysis of the long term costs and impacts of HPAI control in Africa has yet to be done but also for other transboundary diseases

(RFV in the Horn of Africa, FMD, CBPP in Southern Africa, ASF in Western Africa, NCD).


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

“There are no arguments better than figures!”

Questions to be answered ?

1. How to acquire and share knowledge, views, experience?

2. How to promoteskills and knowledge in the economics of TADs in

Africa?

3. How to insure efficiencyof information

dissemination, research and development (R&D)

at the different layers of decision-making

from local to international?


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

POWER DOES NOT RESIDE IN INSTITUTIONS NOT EVEN THE STATE OR LARGE CORPORATIONS.

It is located in the NETWORKS that structure society

  • The Rise of the Network Society : Castells M., 1997, 1998

  • The Information Age: Economy, society and Culture

  • The Power of Identity

Civil societies

Development agencies

Policy communities ; policy actors; civil society

Management; knowledge; public policy; advocacy; etc


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

The CONCEPT

“Networks are formal or informal structures that link actors (individuals or organisations) who share a common interest or a general set of values¨.

Organisational structures or processes bringing actors together.

They constitute a way to gather, assess and share knowledge and learning.

Networks are now considered the most effective organisational model.

Networks are viewed as the solution to all worries.

This is amplified by the “end of project-era mechanisms”.

However, networks are not magic bullets.

In developing countries, the challenges of networking are significantly greater that in the North. Economic, social and political environments are more difficult.

Capacity is more limited. Resources are scarcer.

They can be formal or informal.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

They can help marshal evidence and increase the influence of good quality

evidence in the policy process;

They can foster links between researchers and policy-makers;

They can help bypass formal barriers to consensus;

They can bring resources and expertise to policy-making; and

broaden the pro-poor impact of a policy.

Networks are considered cost-effective ways to access or provide goods and

services to a large constituency or membership.

Sustainability of interventions is possible through developing strong springboards.

And, of course, networks can provide both direct and indirect access to

financial support.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

Six non-exclusive functions for networks : Network functions approach (ODI).

Strategies and activities of networks:

1. Filters: Filtering, to help members find their way through often unmanageable amounts of information.

2. Amplifiers: Amplifying to make little-known or little-understood ideas more widely understood;

3. Convenors: Convening to bring together members from different communities.

4. Facilitators:Facilitating learning and the main activities of their members.

5. Community or specialgroups builder networks: Community-building, to promote and sustain a cohesive group.

6. Investors/Providers: Investing or providing resources, capacities and skills to their members.

Simultaneously or with trade-offs

Specific skills,


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

6 functions

Network

Two-major roles

a support role : interest-group or community development

and learning among the members

an agency role : developing and amplifying the voice of the members


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

Policy process

Policy process

SEC/NET

Policy process

AGENCY ROLE

SEC

SEC


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

Policy process

Policy process

Policy process

SEC/NET

Policy process

SUPPORT ROLE


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

How the form defines the functions of the network

G

L + S

S + A

EE

F

C + S

Functions

Governance

L+S: Localisation and scope

C+S: Capacities and skills

R: Resources

M: Membership

C: Communications S+A: Strategic and adaptive capacity

EE: External environment

C

R

M


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • 10 ‘keys to success’

  • 1. Clear governance agreements: objectives, functions, membership structures,

  • decisions making and conflicts resolution processes

  • 2. Strength in numbers (political weight)

  • 3. Representativeness (legitimacy and influence)

  • 4. Quality of evidence (credibility and legitimacy)

  • 5. Packaging of evidence (effective communication)

  • 6. Persistence over a period of time (policy influence)

  • 7. Key individuals/Institutions (policy influence)

  • 8. Informal links (critical usefulness)

  • 9. Complementing official structures rather than duplicating

  • 10. ICT: New information and communication technologies increasingly vital


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

4. The need for a network

  • Information on the socio-economic consequences of HPAI +

  • TADS scattered among a number of small and large organisations

  • based in or working in Africa.

  • Well tested analytical approaches and tools but limited discussion of their use and appropriateness (cf. smaller organisations that find it hard to

  • participate in regional meetings)

  • When a product is produced that requires inputs from diverse and

  • geographically scattered human resources, a network is a highly

  • effective organisational form.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • A network on socio-economics & biodiversity:

  • Link research and planning centres in different African countries,

  • Facilitate information sharing on methods and results,

  • Joint work on projects of regional interest,

  • Timely analysis to planners and decision makers and

  • Promotion of a critical mass of experienced and well qualified economic and policy analysts.

  • Focus on HPAI but skills and knowledge acquired to extended to other TADs

  • Network = tool to contribute to the overall effort of prevention and control of HPAI


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • meet a membership including policymakers and other decision makers

  • in animal health systems that will become routine participants in developing

  • and using information.

  • a principle of subsidiarity (If suitable network exists, they are strengthened,

  • if not creation)

  • a wide multi-disciplinary constituency of information users and

  • information providers by means of electronic “meeting places”

  • and physical meetings funded through ALIVE.

  • to serve the needs of planners and decision makers and grassroots

  • organisations in the region.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

5. Scheme for the network

  • A “network” as defined here would be:

  • based around five to ten main participating organisations (traditional “research” or state planning organisations, private and NGO organisations with existing programme and human resource capacity suitable to support the work of the network)

  • be anchored by one co-ordinating organisation that will receive additional funding.

  • have funding to support network activities of participating institutions

  • support a grant (modest) for studies in support of animal health planning within the region


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

6. Specific objectives

  • a supporting network at national and regional levels for undertaking assessment of impacts and their policy implications

  • to identify “champions”, discover and stimulate the demand for socio-economic analysis, and communicate effectively with policy makers and planners.

  • a platform for network members (methodologies)

  • to support staff of organisations within the network ;


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • technical guidance and support to decision makers on animal disease

  • control strategies that take into account their impacts on markets, livelihoods and biodiversity, so that research findings are translated into policy changes;

  • linking up with existing technical networks

  • the participation of all stakeholders (livestock market chains in the design and evaluation of animal health control strategies.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

7. Activities in support of the specific objectives

  • Sub-regional (?) networks established with appropriate institutions at the sub-regional level

  • Designated focal point for the network by each participating institution

  • Variety of tools, media and events supported initially for 2-3 years

    • Website, e-consultations, newsletter, database

    • chronology of events regarding the network since its inception

    • face-to-face consultations, regional or Africa-wide meetings

  • Distribution of the work of generating and collating knowledge already available on socio-economic and biodiversity impacts, for example through international organisations


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

  • Engaging with policy makers and decision makers distributed among participating institutions

  • Interactions of members for conducting a review of methodologies for social, economic, production sector and policy assessment of HPAI (and TADs) in the light of available data conducted.

  • Capacity building within institutions in methodologies for HPAI and other TADs assessment and supported by Institutes and individuals with particular expertise

  • Strategic economic and policy reviews and studies conducted by the institutions in the network at country or regional level:

  • Provision or promotion of decision support tools and documentation in support of decision making, produced within the network or produced elsewhere

  • Participation in decision making fora in order that HPAI and other Tads control strategies in the sub-regions incorporate information provided by the networks

  • SUBSIDIARITY (existing networks – New networks)


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

8. Participatory approach

  • Farmers associations, cooperatives and service providers included in the network and benefiting from targeted support

  • Provision and promotion of technical guidelines and manuals field tested and translated in local languages targeting major stakeholders in poultry production

  • Distribution of material through public and private sectors

  • dialogue with governments and the private sector

  • establish contact with existing networks that have common interests in order to widen the constituency for sharing information.


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

9.Expected impacts of the network & long term sustainability

  • Activities completed, strength of partnerships formed, improvement in national and regional capacity)

  • National animal health plans, dissemination of tool and guidelines, and ability to effectively control disease).

  • The funding proposed under the present ALIVE cycle = for 2-3 years.

  • Multiagency multi-agency platform


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

ACTIVITIES SO FAR


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

Etude de faisabilité d’un réseau sur la socio-économie et la biodiversité

pour appuyer la lutte contre la grippe aviaire

et les maladies transfrontalières émergentes ou ré-émergentes

en Afrique

ATELIER CONSULTATIF SOUS-RÉGIONAL

23-24 Octobre 2008, CRSA, Bamako, Mali

Termes de référence & Programme


Feasibility of socio economics and biodiversity network

SPECIAL THANKS TO :

Alive Secretariat

FAO

Thank you

Merci


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