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Sources and Citations. Reliability of Sources. Reliable or Questionable?. Official government websites (. gov ) Blogs Web forums YouTube Wikipedia Textbooks Individual or business websites Peer -reviewed journals N ews sources Universities or Educational Institution sites (. edu ).

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Reliable or questionable
Reliable or Questionable?

  • Official government websites (.gov)

  • Blogs

  • Web forums

  • YouTube

  • Wikipedia

  • Textbooks

  • Individual or business websites

  • Peer-reviewed journals

  • News sources

  • Universities or Educational Institution sites (.edu)

Chicago manual style1
Chicago Manual Style

  • Citation Appears in Two Places: Chicago requires that you cite sources consulted in the body of your paper (“in-text citations” or footnotes/endnotes) and in the bibliography.

Why cite when cite
Why Cite? When Cite?

  • You need to cite all sources that you have consulted, even if you present the ideas from these sources in your own words.

  • Summarizing,

    paraphrasing and

    direct quotations

Footnotes endnotes

  • Wherever you incorporate another person’s words, facts, or ideas, insert a footnote or endnote.

    • Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page within your paper.

    • Endnotes are numbered citations listed on a separate page at the end of the research paper (before the bibliography).

  • Short form notesmay be used if all sources are included in the bibliography

  • The information and proper format needed in the footnotes/endnotes are included in your handout or can be found online.

  • Online citation machines?

Footnotes endnotes1

  • Ibid

  • If you cite the exact same resource multiple times, one immediately after the other, you can replace the normal note format with ‘Ibid’ and the page number/s.

  • Example: Ibid., 121.


  • The bibliography appears at the end of your paper – it is a list of all sources cited within your paper.

  • List entries in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names. If no author is provided, then use the title instead.

  • Single space each entry in the bibliography and double space between entries.

  • Indent the second and subsequent lines of the entry (tab once to indent).

  • Separate Primary and Secondary sources


  • Title Page

  • Spacing

  • Page numbers

  • Italics / Quotations

Title page
Title Page

  • Include the title, author, teacher’s name and date

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.Your name, the date and teacher’s name should follow several lines later

  • Do not include a page number on the title page

  • What is the purpose of a title?


  • Double-space the body of the paper. 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins.

  • Single space footnotes/endnotes

  • Single space bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.

Page numbers
Page Numbers

  • Every page of your paper must be assigned a page number, except the title page.

  • Insert page numbers on the far right at the top of the page.

Italics and quotations
Italics and Quotations

  • Italics: Titles of books and journals in the body of the paper should be in italics.

  • Quotations: Articles, chapters and poems etc should be in quotation marks.