Recent design developments in the EU HCPB TBM
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Recent design developments in the EU HCPB TBM F. Cismondi 1 , S. Kecskes 1 , B. Kiss 2 , F. Hernandez 1 , L.V. Boccaccini 1 1 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, 3 Budapest University of Technology and Economic, Hungary. Presented by: Dr Fabio CISMONDI

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Presented by: Dr Fabio CISMONDI Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

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Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Recent design developments in the EU HCPB TBM

F. Cismondi1, S. Kecskes1, B. Kiss2, F. Hernandez1, L.V. Boccaccini1

1Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany,

3Budapest University of Technology and Economic, Hungary

Presented by:

Dr Fabio CISMONDI

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

Institut für Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

e-mail: [email protected]


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Contest of the study

  • Helium Cooled Pebble Beds (HCPB) and Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) are the two DEMO blankets concepts selected by EU to be tested in ITER.

  • The Test Blanket Systems (TBS) are developed by different Associations throughout EU.

  • The European Joint Undertaking “Fusion for Energy” is in charge of delivering the Test Blanket Modules System (TBS) to ITER.

  • The European partners developing the TBS are joint together into a Consortium Agreement (TBM-CA).

  • The TBM CA works under contracts with F4E

  • KIT and CEA develop within TBM CA the design of the HCLL and HCPB TBMs.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Contest of the study

  • TBM test programme main objectives in ITER

  • Demonstrate tritium breeding capability and verify on-line tritium recovery and control systems;

  • Ensure high grade heat production and removal;

  • Demonstrate the integral performance of the blanket systems in a fusion relevant environment;

  • Validate and calibrate design tools and database used in the blanket design process.

  • DEMO relevancy for the TBMs:

  • Maximum geometrical similarity between the design of the TBM and the corresponding DEMO blanket modules;

  • Active cooling of the structure by Helium at 8 MPa with 300°C/500°C inlet/outlet temperatures,

  • Same structural materials;

  • Maximum structural temperature limited to 550°C;

  • Same manufacturing and assembly techniques.

  • Same functional materials and relevant Be and OSI temperatures.

Structural material

HCPB and HCLL TBMs structural material is the Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97.

RAFM steels derive from the conventional modified 9Cr-1Mo steel eliminating the high activation elements (Mo, Nb, Ni, Cu and N).

Main advantages:excellent dimensional stability (low creep and swelling) under neutron irradiation.

Drawback:ductility characteristics considerably lower than austenitic steels and severely reduced following irradiation.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

710mm

First Wall

Vertical

SGs

Manifold plates

Back plate

1660mm

Plasma side

Breeder

Units

By pass

He outlet

He inlet

Caps

Purge gas in/outlet

Horizontal

SGs

HCPB TBM design description

  • 1660 mm (poloidal) × 484 mm (toroidal) × 710 mm (radial)

    • Robust box (First Wall and Caps)

    • Internal structure of Stiffening Grids (SGs)

    • 5 backplates (BP) constitute the coolant manifolds

    • Horizontal SGs crossing the TBM box to ensure the box stiffness

  • Breeder Units (BUs):

    • Arranged in the space defined by the SGs.

    • Filled by ceramic breeder pebbles (Li4SiO4) and Beryllium neutron multiplier pebbles

    • Based on U-shaped Cooling Plates (CPs) extracting the heat

  • Helium at 80bar cools the TBM box components and the BUs CPs.

  • Helium at 4bar purges the Breeder Zone for tritium removal

3 | Recent developments in the design of the EU HCPB-TBM, Fabio Cismondi


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Design development strategy

  • FW: larger bending radius (150mm) in HCPB TBM

  • Objective: develop a design of the TBM boxes maximizing the similarities.

  • Strategy: synergies are maximized but differences are kept in the most critical points to investigate different design options and minimize the risk.

  • Critical points:

    • FW, fabrication issues

    • Manifold, design different for the different internal engineering of the 2 TBMs

Manifolds: Horizontal SGs crossing the TBM box (HCPB), Stiffening rods (HCLL)


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Detailed view of BU design

MF.2

MF.3

MF.1

Back plate

Radial-poloidal cut

and BU detail

Li4SiO4

Be

MF.4

He at 8 MPa, T 300 to 500 °C

Purge gas MFs


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PLASMA

Detailed view of BU design

MF.2

MF.3

MF.1

First Wall

Back plate

Be pebble bed

He coolant

Li pebble bed

Be pebble bed

He purge gas

n

14,08 MeV

Li pebble bed

Be pebble bed

He coolant

Cooling/stiffening grid

MF.4

Purge gas MFs


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Start

HCPB TBM design life cycle

Structural concept

Material selection

Neutronic

Nuclear heating rate

Tritium breeding Ratio

Support concept,

manteinance

Fabricability

Thermal-hydraulics

Tritium recovery

Temperature of structural, functional materials

Coolant velocity and pressure loss

Thermo-mechanics

Stress evaluation

Overall performance evaluation

End


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3D CFD model of the TBM box

Temperature distribution

at t1=40s.

Primary + secondary stress field on the TBM at t2=500s

  • Design Description Document (DDD) of the TBM box released (complete set of Build To Print CAD drawings performed)

MPa

0 120 240 360 450

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.


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3D CFD model of the BU

Goal: determine helium coolant mass flow rate in the different subcomponents and heat fluxes generated in BU and deposed on the subcomponents.

First Wall

Breeder Unit CFD model

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.

Horizontal SGs

Vertical SGs

Cooling Plates

Thermal contact resistance between pebble beds and structural material: correlations from Yagi & Kuniused to define the HTC between pebble beds and structural material:

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

z

x

3D CFD model of the BU

Structural analyses: secondary stresses and structural deformation

∆x ≈ - 0,31mm

∆x ≈ - 0,5mm

∆sbed ≈ 0,4mm

∆x ≈ + 0,09mm

∆x ≈ + 0,17mm

y

∆y ≈ + 2,09mm

∆y ≈ + 1,96mm

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

3D CFD model of the BU

Beryllium:

k as a function of the temperature T and the pebble bed strain ε:

values of ε=0.2%, 0,32% and 0,5% (corresponding respectively to a pressure of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5MPa) have been considered as being characteristic for the three zones

OSI:

variation of the OSi thermal conductivity with the temperature :

The OSi thermal conductivity has the same order of magnitude than the purge gas one and its variation with the temperature is limited.

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

3D CFD model of the BU

  • Transient analyses performed (typical ITER pulse).

  • Maximal temperatures:

  • Low strain region in Be 760˚C.

  • OSi pebbles 870˚C.

  • Helium outlet stable at 490˚C by the end of the pulse.

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

3D CFD model of the BU

  • Transient analyses performed (typical ITER pulse).

  • Maximal temperatures:

  • Low strain region in Be 760˚C.

  • OSi pebbles 870˚C.

  • Helium outlet stable at 490˚C by the end of the pulse.

  • Improved modeling of pebble beds region:

  • thermal conductivity temperature and strain (for Be) dependent

  • thermal contact resistance temperature dependent.


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

3D CFD model of the BU

Transient analyses performed (typical ITER pulse).

Temperatures in Be and OSI at the end of the plasma pulse

First Wall

Breeder Unit CFD model

Horizontal SGs

Vertical SGs

Cooling Plates


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Transient thermo mechanical analyses of the BU

Goal: Evaluate thermo-mechanical performance of the BU. Design changes implemented to fulfill the design criteria. The selected design C&S is RCC-MR 2007 completed by SDC-IC ITER rules (adressing irradiation damages).

SM2

SM1

Primary stress in base design. Equivalent Von Mises


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Transient thermo mechanical analyses of the BU

Submodel 2: BU manifold center region

BU base design

Design improvement: 20mm thick BU backplate and stiffeners


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Transient thermo mechanical analyses of the BU

  • M-Tpe damages assessment

3

10

9

4


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Transient thermo mechanical analyses of the BU

  • M-Tipe damages assessment

  • C-Tipe damage assessment

3

10

4


Presented by dr fabio cismondi karlsruher institut f r technologie kit

Progress in fabrication

  • 4x Cooling plates (CPs)

  • 2x U-shaped CPs

  • 4x Lateral Wraps

  • 2x U-shaped Lateral Wraps

  • 1 BU Backplate

  • 1x Inlet + 1x Outlet pipes

  • 2x Ditributor Frontplate

  • 2x Distributor Backplate

  • 2x Grill plate

  • Complexity of the BU manufacturing is mainly in the CPs: manufacturing test mock-ups are addressed to study the CPs fabrication techniques.

  • Complex mounting sequence: TIG orbital welding adressed.


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Progress in fabrication

  • Complete set of Build To Print CAD drawings performed and Design Description Document (DDD) of the BU released :


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Slightbump, poortorchorientation

Progress in fabrication

  • Manufacturing of CP mock-ups

  • Qualification of TIG orbital welding

Qualification in welding laboratories of CEA Saclay to obtain welding parameters for BU TIG2 (purge gas pipe with backplate manifold, RCC-MR and ISO starndards)

  • Qualification of fabrication techniques

    • BU bending radius (Uni Stuttgart)

    • Cooling channels with Spark Erosion (industry)


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BU mock-up testing program in EU

  • BU container, optimal shape for:

  • the interface with Heblo facility

  • leak tightness

  • instrumentation

  • access to the testing zone

  • experimental plan flexibility

  • Goal: Design and Procurement of a BU Mock-up

Instrumentation access from the mock up side: high testing possibilities and flexibility

Possible access for the instrumentation from the back side

BU cell, 1 to 1 BU dimensions


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TBM design requirements

  • Several functional requirements for the HCPB Blanket are related to the Solid Breeder performances. They concern:

  • Neutronic performances for T self-sufficiency (TBR, Tritium Breeding Ratio);

  • Temperature control;

  • Long Blanket lifetime;

  • Tritium extraction;

  • Material compatibility;

  • Low tritium inventory in materials;

  • Low activation (for waste management and recycling).

  • Most of these requirements have been quantified for the design of DEMO and FPP, e.g. a calculated TBR not lower than 1.12 is requested for DEMO and FPP or a blanket lifetime compatible with a neutron fluence of ~15 MWa/m2 is assumed in the FPP.

  • These requirements are the basis on which sets of specification for the pebble production have been generated.

  • The connection among these general functional requirements and specification of the pebble (e.g. density, Li-6 enrichment, etc.) and pebble beds (e.g. effective thermal conductivity, packing factor, etc.) can be reconstructed for some of them, but can be very complicated in other case.

  • E.g. the nuclear analyses can correlate well properties like material density, pebble bed packing, ceramic composition with the TBR, allowing to determine the required properties for the pebble production. More complicated is to state the impact that e.g. the crash load value has on functional requirements like the T extraction or lifetime; fragmentation of pebble (that can impact the purging functionality) should be minimised, but a quantification of an upper limit necessitate further R&D.

  • Then ITER TBM has specific functional requirement. The specifications of the pebbles for TBM are oriented to the specification generated for DEMO/FPP. I.e. in TBM relevant reactor pebble beds will be tested trying to reproduce the most relevant reactor conditions. Deviations are introduced to cope with specific ITER relevant requirement; e.g. Li-6 enrichment in the ceramic is used at the “maximum” enrichment level of 90 in order to compensate the lower T and heat production related to lower neutron wall load in ITER (0.78 vs. 2.5 MW/m2 in a FPP).


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Conclusions

  • Main results achieved:

  • Definition of C&S for TBM design and analyses

  • Definition and analyses of main TBM specific loading conditions

  • Transient thermo mechanical analyses of a standard ITER pulse.

  • Release of DDD for TBM box and Bus.

  • Important outcomes of the TBM transient analyses:

  • Several junctions present peak stresses : design optimization is on-going.

  • Open issues:

  • Design rules developed mainly for austenitic-type steels (i.e. 316L(N)-IG ITER shielding steel)

  • Limited experience with martensitic-type steel in a fusion relevant environment,

  • Concerns regarding the validity/degree of conservatism of the C&S rules when taking into account Eurofer97 mechanical properties.

  • Next priorities:

  • Develop dedicated models and studies addressing design issues

  • Assess possible requirements and operating scenarios limiting the margins under which the design can evolve.

  • Experiments validating FE modeling: pebble beds thermo mechanics, fluid dynamic, structural material behavior


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